First record of Triops strenuus Wolf, 1911 (Branchiopoda, Notostraca), a tadpole shrimp of Australian origin, from Japan

in Crustaceana
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Three species of tadpole shrimp, i.e., Triops granarius (Lucas, 1864), Triops longicaudatus (LeConte, 1846) and Triops cancriformis (Bosc, 1801-1802), have been known from Japan. In this paper the author describes a fourth Triops species (= Triops strenuus Wolf, 1911) living in the rice paddies of a southern area of Honshu, the largest of the four main islands of Japan. This species was probably endemic to the Australian continent, and no habitat distribution outside Australia has been reported so far. The impact on the existing ecosystem of Japan is quite unknown, and therefore, it is necessary to announce this intrusion into Japan in order to clarify the invasion route, habitat ecology, and the future measures against this new alien species. This invasion is considered to be caused by the resting eggs brought together with silica sand (imported from Western Australia into Japan for the large-scale beach improvement). The results presented here also describe the phylogenetic relationship with all the Australian species described so far, but also all the known Triops species of the world, based on the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA.

First record of Triops strenuus Wolf, 1911 (Branchiopoda, Notostraca), a tadpole shrimp of Australian origin, from Japan

in Crustaceana



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    First record of Triops strenuus Wolf, 1911 from Japan. a, Representative of the live adult (scale: 10 mm); b, habitat (rice paddies in Shirahama, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan; June of 2015); c, Shirahama Coast, or commonly known as “Shirarahama Beach”, under beach improvement process (May of 2016); d, distant view of the Wakayama Adventure World amusement park on the hill, the foreground rice paddies are also their habitats (all photos by H. Naganawa).

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    Phylogenetic tree, on the basis of a molecular analysis, for the newly known Triops population from Shirahama (Wakayama Prefecture, Japan) and the world recognized Triops species so far, with an outgroup Lepidurus viridis Baird, 1850. Australian lineages (indicated as A1, A2, … in parentheses after each taxon name, except for B5, L2, T3 and U) are by Meusel & Schwentner (2017). The lineage (L1) is equal to the lineage (L) by Meusel & Schwentner (2017). Small letters (a-i) on the right margin correspond to the nine undescribed species in the text, respectively (see also fig. 3 and table II). Asterisk shows the fifth Australian lineage to Triops strenuus Wolf, 1911, recognized by the present author in Japan.

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    Distribution map of the ten newly recognized Triops spp. in the present study. Asterisk indicates Shirahama where Triops strenuus Wolf, 1911 (B5) inhabits. Each filled circle indicates the sampling site; and the small letters (a-i) on the side correspond to the nine remaining species in the text, respectively (see also fig. 2 and table II).

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