Medical Professionals and Public Health in "Doldrums" Russia (1725-62)*

In: Canadian-American Slavic Studies
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  • 1 The University of Kansas

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  • *For research support I am indebted to the National Library of Medicine,U.S. Public Health Service (grants 1 RO1 LM 01664-01 and LM 02359-01), the General Research Fund of the University of Kansas (award 3162-5038), the International Research and Exchanges Board, the Ministry of Higher and Specialized Education of the USSR, and the American Philosophical Society. My colleague Norman Saul provided helpful criti- cism. 1. Michael T. Florinsky, Russia: A Short History, 2nd ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1969), p. 191. 2. Arcadius Kahan, "Continuity in Economic Activity and Policy during the Post- Petrine Period in Russia," Journal of Economic History, 25, No. 1 (March 1965), 61-85; Valentin Boss, Newton and Russia (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1972). 3. For background and bibliography, see John T. Alexander, "Medical Developments in Petrine Russia," Canadian-American Slavic Studies, 8, No. 2 (1974), 198-221.

  • 4.PolnoesobraniezakonovRossiiskoiimperii, 1st series (St. Petersburg: Tip II Otdel- eniia Sobst. Ego Imp. Vel. Kantseliarii,1830), Nos. 11,964 and 11,965 (12 Nov. 1763)- hereafter cited PSZ.

  • 5. Alexander Briickner, Die Aerzte in Russland bis zum Jahre 1800 (St. Petersburg: Kaisertiche Hofbuchhandlung H. Schmitzdorff, 1887), pp. 13, 68. 6. Ibid., p. 39.

  • 7. For brief biographies of M.D.'s in Russia from 1725 to the mid-1760s, see W. M. Richter, Geschichte der Medicin in Russland, 3 vols. (Moscow: Gedruckt bei N. S. Wse- wolojsky, 1813-17; reprinted Leipzig, 1965), III, 199-210, 215-22, 246-96, 424-92, and Ia. A. Chistovich, Istoriia pervykh meditsinskikh shkol v Rossii (St. Petersburg: Tipograf- iia Iakova Treia, 1883), app. X, "Alfavitnyi spisok doktorov meditsiny, praktikovavshikh v Rossii v XVIII stoletii," See also K. K. Silvai, "Deiatel'nost' vengerskikh vrachei v Rossii vo vtoroi polovine XVIII veka," Sovetskoe zdravookhranenie, 20, No. 2 (1961), 76-81. 8. Richter, III. 251-62, 270-80, 436-39, 476-77; Chistovich,lstoriia, app. X, clxxxii- clxxxviii, ccxxxiii-ccxxxv, cccxv-cccxx, cccxxxiv-cccxxxvi; Heinz E. Miiller-Dietz, Arzte im Russland des achzehnten Jahrhunderts (Esslingen/Neckar: Robugen GmbH, 1973), pp. 54-71. 9. David Willemse, Antonio Nunes Ribeiro Sanches-eleve de Boerhaave-et son im- portance pour la Russie, supplements to Janus, Vol. 6 (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1966); C. R. Boxer, "An Enlightened Portuguese: Dr. Ribeiro Sanches," History Today, 20, No. 4 (April 1970), 270-77; Richter, III, 424-36, 453-67; I. van Esso, "Hollandsche Artsen in Russischen Hof- en Staatsdienst in de 16e, 17e en 18e Eeuw," Bijdragen tot de Ge- schiedenis der Geneeskunde, 18 (1938), 58-61.

  • 10. Eduard Winter, Halle als Ausgangspunkt der deutschen Russlandkunde im 18. Jahrhundert ( Jahrhundert ([East] Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1953), pp. 101-02; Erik Amburger, Bei- trage zur Geschichte der deutsch-russischen kulturellen Beziehungen, Giessener Abhand- lungen zur Agrar- und Wirtschaftsforschung des europaischen Ostens, vol. XIV (Giessen: 1m kommissionsverlag W. Schmitz, 1961), pp. 30-31, 219-20, 228-29. 11. 1. van Esso, "Vreemde Artsen in russischen Staatsdienst, in Holland gestudeerd hebbende," Bijdragen tot de geschiedenis der Geneeskunde, 18 (1938), 281-91; Nicholas Hans, "Russian Students at Leyden in the 18th Century," Slavonic and East European Review, 35, No. 85 (June 1957), 555-57. 12. Richter, III, 210-12, 297-302, 494-508. 13. S. S. Mikhailov, Meditsinskaia sluzhba ruskogo flota v XVIII veke (Leningrad: Medgiz, 1957), p. 24. 14. Ia. A. Chistovich, "Morovaia iazva 1738 goda (po offitsiial'nym istochnikam)," Voenno-meditsinskii zhurnal, 127 (Sept. 1876), 75-76. 15. S. A. Semeka, Meditsinskoe obespechenie russkoi armii vo vremia Semiletnei voiny 1756-1763gg. (Moscow: Medgiz, 1951), pp. 133, 196. l6.Ibid., pp. 162-63, 168-72.

  • 17. B. N. Palkin, Russkie gospital nye shkoly XVIII veka i ikh vospitanniki (Moscow: Medgiz, 1959), pp. 16-18. 18. Anonymous critique of the Medical Chancery, 1763, in Tsentral'nyi Gosudarst- vennyi Arkhiv Drevnikh Aktov (Moscow), f. 16, d. 322, pt. I, 165 v.-hereafter cited TsGADA.

  • 19. Ia. A. Chistovich, Ocherki iz istorii russkikh meditsinskikh uchrezhdenii XVIII stoletiia (St. Petersburg: Tipografiia Iakova Treia, 1870), pp. 128-30, 375-77; Palkin, pp. 34, 37. The hospital regulations of 1735 (General'nyi reglament o gospitaliakhJ elabor- ated the Admiralty Regulations of 1722, themselves an adaptation of French prototypes. See Basil Haigh, "Design for a Medical Service: Peter the Great's Admiralty Regulations (1722)," Medical History, 19, No. 2 (April 1975), 129-46. 20. A. N. Alelekov and N. I. Iakimov, Istoriia moskovskogo voennogo gospitalia v sviazi s istorieiu meditsiny v Rossii (Moscow: Tipografiia shtaba Moskovskogo vocnnogo okruga, 1907), pp. 217-53, 289-98, 346; Jonas Hanway, An Historical Account of Bri- tish Trade over the Caspian Sea, 4 vols. (London: Sold by Mr. Dodsley et al., 1753), I, 94. 21. Alelekov and Iakimov, pp. 291, 345-53, 366-72, 404-05. For a similar jurisdic- tional quarrel at the Petersburg General Infantry Hospital in 1757, see Chistovich, Ocher- ki, pp. 220-78.

  • 22. Alelekov and Iakimov, pp. 209-10, 213, 302, 310-12, 373-76; Palkin, pp. 27-30. See also Gregory L. Freeze, "Social Mobility and the Russian Parish Clergy in the Eight- eenth Century," Slavic Review, 30, No. 4 (1974), 653, 658-59. For a contemporary's praise of the twin Petersburg hospitals and surgical schools, see John Cook, Voyages and Travels through the Russian Empire, Tartary, and Part of the Kingdom of Persia, 2 vols. (Edinburgh: For the author, 1770), I, 30-38. 23. Alelekov and Iakimov, pp. 174, 277-80; Palkin, p. 18; Chistovich, Istoriia, pp. 261-62.

  • 24. Alelekov and Iakimov, pp. 155, 164, 257-73, 285, 301-02,309; S. M. Crombakh, Russkaia meditsinskaia literatura XVIII veka (Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Akademii meditsin- skikh nauk SSSR, 1953), pp. 61-64. 25. Alelekov and Iakimov,pp. 327-33; Palkin, pp. 94-97. Evidently the Medical Chan- cery intended to send Russian surgeons abroad on a regular basis, decrees of 7 March and 3 April 1762 providing for periodic selection of candidates and for double pay for those chosen. See Chistovich, Istoriia, app. X, cclxxix.

  • 26. Chistovich, Istoriia, app. X, ccliv-cclviii, cccxliv-ccclii. 27. Alelekov and Iakimov, pp. 146, 168-75, 214, 264-70, 375-86; Palkin pp. 34-38, 44-45, 50-54, 56, 63; S. V. Shershavkin, Istoriia otechestvennoi sudebno-meditsinskoi sluzhby (Moscow: Izd. "Meditsina," 1968), pp. 39-47. 28. For brief biographies of seventy-three prominent graduates, see Palkin, app. I, 203-43. 29. For diametrically opposed assessments, see Palkin, pp. 3-4, 30, 55-60, and Chis- tovich, Ocherki, pp. 128-30. 30. Mirko Grmek, "The History of Medical Education in Russia," in The History of Medical Education, ed. C. D. O'Malley (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1970), p. 306.

  • 31. D. M. Rossiiskii, 200 let meditsinskogo fakul'teta Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta (Moscow: Medgiz, 1955), pp. 23-36, 39. 32. TsGADA, f. 16, d. 322, pt. I, 32v-36. 33. Chistovich, Istoriia, app. X, ciii-civ. 34. Willemse, pp. 32-60.

  • 35. Chistovich, Istoriia, pp. 84-85, 477-78; app. X, cccxx; Cook, Voyagesand Travels, II, 20-22. 36. V. V. Fursenko, "Delo o Lestoke 1748 goda," Zhurnal Ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniia, n. s., 38, No. 4 (April 1912), 185-247. 37. Chistovich, Istoriia, pp. 507-11. 38. James Hassell, "Implementation of the Russian Table of Ranks during the Eight- eenth Century," Slavic Review, 29, No. 2 (June 1970), 284, 290; Chistovich, Ocherki, p. 134; Heinz E. Muller-Dietz, Der russische Militärarzt im 18. Jahrhundert (Berlin: Osteur- opa Institut, 1970), p. 75. 39. Miiller-Dietz, Der russische Militararzt, pp. 75-76. Nikita Nozhevnikov and Niko- lai Chubenskii, both graduates of the Moscow surgical school, became staff-surgeons in 1758, evidently the first Eastern Slavs to reach that rank. Chistovich, Ocherki, pp. 130, 135.

  • 40. M. Iu. Lakhtin, Etiudy po istorii meditsiny (Moscow: 1902), pp. 183-88; Chisto- vich, Istoriia, p. 306. 41. Chistovich, Istoriia, p. 290; Alelckov and Iakimov, pp. 398�00. 42. Miiller-Dietz, Der russische Militärarzt, pp. 69-71.

  • 43. Cook, Voyages and Travels, II, 532-33. 44. PSZ, X, No. 7245 (10 May 1737); Chistovich, Istoriia, pp. 554-60. 45. Ibid., p. 511; Heinz E. Muller-Dietz, "Die Anfange der Stadtphysikats in Moskau und St. Petersburg," SudhoffsArchiv, 60, No. 2 (1976), 194-206.

  • 46. M. V. Lomonosov, Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, ed. S. I. Vavilov et al., 10 vols. (Moscow and Leningrad: Izd. Akademii nauk SSSR, 1950-57), VI, 389-90, 396-97. 47. Alelekov and Iakimov, p. 430. 48. V. N. Bochkarev, "Vrachebnoe delo i narodnoe prizrenie v Rossii XVIII veka: po materialam Zakonodatel'noi komissii 1767 goda," Sbornik statei v chest' Matveia Kuz'. micha Liubavskogo (Petrograd: Tip. B. D. Bruknera, 1917), pp. 442-89; Lakhtin, Etiudy, pp. 185-86; S. M. Solov'ev, Istoriia Rossii s drevneishikh vremen, 15 vols. (Moscow: "Nauka", 1959-66), XII, 582. 49. Chistovich, Istoriia, pp. 306-07; Alelekov and lakimov, pp. 360-85. 50. A. 1. Mikhailov, Arkhitektur D. V. Ukhtomskii i ego shkola (Moscow: Gos. izd. literatury po stroitel'stvu i arkhitekture, 1954), pp. 222-34; Chistovich, Istoriia, p. 23.

  • 51. S. V. Bakhrushin et al., eds., Istoriia Moskvy, 7 vols. in 8 (Moscow: Izd. Akademii nauk SSSR, 1952-67), II, 467-68, 471-72. 52. M. V. Ptukha, Ocherki po istorii statistiki XVII-XVIII vekov (Moscow: Ogiz, 1945), pp. 278-314; S. N. Belgorodskaia, "Istoki sanitarnoi statistiki v Rossii," in A. M. Merkov, ed., Ocherki istorii otechestvennoi sanitarnoi statistiki (Moscow: Izd. "Medit- sina", 1966), pp. 7-62. 53. Richter, III, 594-97.

  • 54.Ibid., pp. 327-29, 594-97; Alelekov and Iakimov, pp. 387-89; Palkin, p. 177; Chistovich, Ocherki, pp. 128-82. 55. Lomonosov, VI, 388, 390. 56. S. M. Troitskii, "Finansovaia politika russkogo absoliutizma vo vtoroi polovine XVIIi XVIIIw.," in N. M. Druzhinin et al., eds.,Absoliutizm v Rossii (Moscow: "Nauka", 1964), pp. 305, 312.

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