Great Power Politics in Eastern Europe and the Ukrainian Emigres, 1709-42

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  • 1 Hamilton College

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  • 1. The standard study of Mazepa and his uprising is N. Kostomarov's Mazepa i Maze- pyntsy, vol. 16 of his Istoricheskiia monografii i izsliedovaniia (St. Petersburg: Stasiule- vich, 1885). Two recent studies on this topic are O. Ohloblyn, Hetman Ivan Mazepa i ioho doba (New York: ODFU, 1960) and B. Kentrschyns'kyj, Mazepa (Stockholm: S6- derstrom, 1966). 2. For an overview of the Mazepists' activities, see the second part of Kostomarov's Mazepa i Mazepyntsy, pp. 593-719.

  • 3. In 1709 the tsar sent three official notes to the Porte on 10, 14, and 27 July de- manding the return of Mazepa. See Pis'ma i bumagi imperatora Petra Velikago, IX (Lenin- grad: Akademiia nauk SSSR, 1952), 311. 4. F. Fabrice, Anecdotes du sejour du roi de Sue de a Bender.. , (Hamburg: C. Her- old, 1760), p. 10, and Kostomarov, Mazepa i Mazepyntsy, citing the Russian envoy to the Porte, Tolstoi. p. 581. 5. Kostomarov, Mazepa i Mazepyntsy, p. 581. 6. Pylyp Orlyk (1672-1742) belonged to a szlachta (gentry) family of Czech origin which emigrated to Poland during the Hussite wars and later settled in Lithuania. His ed- ucation was an extensive one; initially he studied at the Jesuit Academy in Vilno and later moved to Kiev to continue his studies at the Mohyla Academy. As a result of his academic achievements and of his contacts with such men as Stefan Iavors'kyi, after the completion of his studies, Orlyk obtained a position as secretary of the consistory of the Kiev Metropolitanate and later he moved into Mazepa's chancellery. Eventually he be- came the Chancellor of the Zaporozhian Host and loyally followed Mazepa into exile. For a thorough survey of his political activities, see B. Krupnyts'kyi, Hetman Pylyp Or- lyk, vol. XLII of the Pratsi Ukrains'koho Naukovoho Instytutu (Warszawa: Gerber, 1938). Unfortunately, Krupnyts'kyi was unable to utilize such key primary sources as Orlyk's diary and the French and Polish archives. A study based on these unutilized sources is my unpublished Ph.D. dissertation: "The Unwilling Allies: The Relations of Pylyp Orlyk with the Ottoman Porte and the Crimean Khanate, 1710-1742," Harvard University, 1973.

  • 7. Subtelny, "Unwilling Allies," pp. 61-70. 8. Ibid., pp. 104-16. 9. Kostomarov, Mazepa i Mazepyntsy, pp. 648-52. 10. Ibid., p. 622.

  • 11. For documents relating to Voinarovskyi's kidnapping, see "Dokumenty ob Andrei Voinarovskom...." Sbornik statei i materialov po istorii Iugo-Zapadnoi Rossii, 2 vols. (Kiev: Izd. Kievskoi Kommissii, 1916), II. A Study of Voinarovs'kyi's life is also avail- able in L. Wynar, Andrii Voinarovs7cyi (Miinchen, Dniprova Khvylia, 1962). 12. A record of the heated Polish-Russian debates concerning the abduction of Hert- syk may be found in Warsaw in Archiwum Glowne Akt Dawnych [hereafter AGAD], Archiwum Publ. Potockich, Nr. 58, folios 299-305. For a transcript of his interrogation in St. Petersburg, see "Dopros Grigoriia Gertsika ob uchastii evo v izmene Mazepy," Kievskaia starina, No. 3 (1883), pp. 13-38.

  • 13. Orlyk's diary, written in Polish, may be found in Archives du Ministere des Af- faires etrangeres [hereafter AtlE], entitled Diariusz podrozny ... [hereafter Diariusz], Memoires et Documents. Pologne, vols. VII-XI. For a discussion of this fascinating source, see O. Subtelny, "From the Diary of Pylyp Orlyk," Ukrainskyi Istoryk, 1-2 (1971), 95-105. 14. "Pismo Orlika k lavorskomu," Osnova, 10 (St. Petersburg) (1862), 1-28. 15. Charles Frederick, the Duke of Holstein, a favorite of Catherine I, was person- ally acquainted with and quite sympathetic to Orlyk. Moreover, General Johann Szten- flicht, the duke's envoy to St. Petersburg, eventually married the hetman's daughter.

  • 16. An outstanding work dealing with this much studied topic is E. Rostworowski, O Polska Korone: Polityka Francji w latach 1725-1733 (Wrochw-Kraków: Ossolineum, 1958). 17. See M. Andrusiak,"Zviazky Mazepy z Stanislavom Leshchynskim i Karlom XII," " Zapysky Naukovoho Tovarystva im. Shevchenka, 152 (Lviv, 1933). See also O. Subtelny, ed., On the Eve,of Poltava: The Letters of Ivan Mazepa to Adam Sieniawski, 1704-1708 (New York: UVAN, 1975).

  • 18. Rostworowski, O Polska Korone, p. 92. 19. Diariusz, IX, fol. 132. 20. Orlyk to Fr. Cachoda, 26 June 1726, Diariusz, IX, fol. 57. 21. Diariusz, IX, fol. 98. 22. Leszczynski to Orlyk, 7 March 1727, Diariusz, IX, fol. 238.

  • 23.Ibid., fol. 239. 24. Orlyk to Leszczynski, 25 June 1727. Ibid., fol. 249. 25. Ibid.

  • 26.Ibid.27.SbornikImperatorskagorusskagoistoricheskagoobshchestva, 148 vols. [hereafter SIRIO], (St. Petersburg-Petrograd: I. N. Skorokhodov, 1867-1916), LV (1886), 26.

  • 28. For the plight of the Zaporozhians under Crimean and Ottoman sovereignty, see A. Skalkovskii, Istoriia novoi-sechi ili posliedniago kosha zaporozhskago, 2 vols. (Odessa: Stepanov, 1846), II. 29. Cf. E.Borshchak,Hryhor Orlyk (Toronto: Burns and MacEachern, 1956), p. 64. Hryhor Orlyk (1702-59) was the eldest son of the hetman. After serving in the Swedish and Saxon armies he entered French service and eventually achieved the rank of general in the French army. However, his specialty was carrying out secret and highly sensitive assignments in Eastern Europe and the Ottoman Empire for Louis XV. In this capacity he cooperated closely with and aided his father. Borshchak's study, although based on French archival sources, is highly romanticized and not always reliable. Documentary sources pertaining to Hryhor's myriad anti-Russian activities may be found in AAE, Cor. politique, Pologne, vol. 180 and in Hryhor's family archive located in Dinteville, Haute- Marne, France. 30. Villeneuve to G. L. Chauvelin, 25 Nov. 1733, Bibliothèque Nationale [hereafter Bib. Nat. ] in Paris, manuscripts, Fr. 7179, fol. 394.

  • 31. Villeneuve to G. L. Chauvelin, 12 March 1734, Bib. Nat. Fr. 7180, fol. 59. 32. Secret order to Nepliuev, 27 March 1734, in D. Evarnytskii, Istochniki dlia istorii zaporozhskikh kozakov', 2 vols. (Vladimir: Gubern. Pravlenie, 1903), II, 1154. 33. Cabinet of Ministers to General L. V. Izmailov, 26 April 1734, SIRIO, CVIII, 134. 34. Orlyk to the Zaporozhians, 23 April 1734, in A. Skalkovskii, "Filip Orlyk i za- porozhtsy," Kievskaia Starina, No. 4 (1882), pp. 106-24.

  • 35. Ibid, p. 111.

  • 36.Ibid" p. 112. 37. Ibid., p. 119. 38. Ibid., p. 120. 39. Villeneuve to Chauvelin, 31 May 1734, Bib. Nat. Fr. 7180, fol. 92. Hryhor, who had secretly visited the Zaporozhians several years earlier, was not surprised by this turn of events. 40 Villeneuve to Chauvelin, 31 Jan. 1735, AAE, Turquie 93, fol. 50. The French am- bassador had given Orlyk 1000 sequins in addition to "24 purses" the latter received from the grand vezir. In summer of 1735 Orlyk had about 700 men.

  • 41. Krupnyts'kyi, Hetman Pylyp Orlyk., p. 160. 42. Among the aging Mazepists, most of whom had been living quietly in Poland, who now joined Orlyk were Fedir Nakhimovs'kyi, Fedir Myrovych, and Ivan Hertsyk. 43. Kaplan Girei to Louis XV, 22 Sept. 1735, AAE, Cor. politique, Turquie 93, fol. 75. 44. Anna Ivanovna to Prince A. I. Shakhovskoi, 25 April 1734, SIRIO, CVIII, 134. 45. Cabinet of Ministers to Baron von Keyserling, 31 Aug. 1734, ibid., p. 348.

  • 46. Orlyk to Hryhor, 30 Oct. 1738, AAE, Cor politique 227, fol. 260. 47. Ibid., fol. 266. 48. S. M. Solov'ev, Istoriia Rossii s drevneishikh vremen, 15 vols. (Moscow: Izd. Sot- sial'no-ekonomicheskoi literatury, 1959-66), IX, 451.

  • 49. Krupnyts'kyi, Hetman Pylyp Orlyk, p. 170. According to the reports of Russian agents, after Orlyk's death, two of his associates, Fedir Myrovych and Fedir Nakhymov- s'kyi, stayed in the Crimea and continued, as late as 1757, to agitate among Zaporozhians and other Ukrainians against the Russians. See Kostomarov, Mazepa i Mazepyntsy, p. 176. 50. See Subtelny, "The Unwilling Allies," pp. 43-96.

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