Communicable Disease, Anti-epidemic Policies, and the Role of Medical Professionals in Russia, 1725-62*

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References

*For research support I am indebted to the National Library of Medicine, U.S. Public Health Service (grants 1 RO1 LM 01664-01 and LM 02359-01), the General Research Fund of the University of Kansas (award 3162-5038), the International Re- search and Exchanges Board, the Ministry of Higher and Specialized Secondary Educa- tion of the USSR, and the American Philosophical Society. Norman Saul provided helpful criticism.

1. For general medical developments in this period, see John T. Alexander, "Medi- cal Professionals and Public Health in 'Doldrums' Russia (1725-62)," in this issue. 2. Senatskii arkhiv [hereafter SA], 15 vols. (St. Petersburg: Tipografiia Prav. Senata, 1888-1913), II, 4. 3. K. G. Vasil'ev and A. E. Segal, Istoriia epidemii v Rossii: Materialy i ocherki, ed. A. I. Metelkin (Moscow: Medgiz, 1960), p. 190.

4. W. M. Richter, Geschichte derMedicin in Russland, 3 vols. (Moscow: Gedrucktbei N. S. Wsewolojsky, 1813-17; reprinted Leipzig: Tsentralantiquariat der DDR, 1965), III, 206. 5. Vasil'ev and Segal, pp. 195, 197-98; SA, II, 34-35. 6. L. N. Semenova, Rabochie Peterburga v pervoi polovine XVIII veka (Leningrad: "Nauka", 1974), pp. 197-201. 7. Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossiiskoi imperii [hereafter PSZ], 1st series, 46 vols. (St Petersburg: Tip. II Otdeleniia Sobst. Ego Imp. Vel. Kantseliarii, 1830), X, No. 7245 (10 May 1737); Heinz E. Miiller-Dietz, "Die Anfange der Stadtphysikats in Moskau und St. Petersburg," Sudhoffs Archiv, 60, No. 2 (1976), 197. 8. Zapiski artillerii maiora Mikhaila Vasilievicha Danilova, napisannyia im v 1771 godu (Moscow: Tipografiia S. Selivanovskago, 1842), p. 52. 9. SA, 11,25-27. 10. Gustaf Utterstrom, "Some Population Problems in Pre-Industrial Sweden," Scandinavian Economic History Review, 2, No. 2 (1954), 121-32; Michal Bricourt, Marcel Lachiver, and Denis Queruel, "La crise de subsistence des annees 1740 dans les ressort du parlement de Paris," Annales de demographic historique 1974 (Paris and La Haye: Mouton, 1974), pp, 281-333. 11. Arcadius Kahan, "Natural Calamities and Their Effect upon the Food Supply in Russia (An Introduction to a Catalogue)," Jahrbiicher fur Geschichte Osteuropas, n.s., 16, No. 3 (1968), 372. 12. I. E. Zabelin, ed., Materialy dlia istorii, arkheologii i statistiki goroda Moskvy, 2 vols. (Moscow: Moskovskaia gorodskaia tipografiia, 1884-91), II, 883.

13. Senate Office in Moscow to Policemaster Chancery, 26 April 1734, Otdel pis'- mennykh istochnikov, Gosudarstvennyi Istoricheskii Muzei (Moscow), f. 440, d. 632, pp. 94-94v. 14. Ia. A. Chistovich, Ocherki iz istorii russkikh meditsinskikh uchrezhdenii XVIII stoletiia (St. Petersburg: Tipografiia Iakova Treia, 1870), p. 8. 15. Extract of Shipov's report to V. Dolgorukii, received in Derbent on 9 Aug. 1727, Sbornik Imperatorskogo russkogo istoricheskogo obshchestva [Hereafter SIRIOJ, 148 vols. (St. Petersburg-Petrograd: Gosudarstvennaia Tipografiia and Tipografiia I. N. Skorokhodova, 1867-1916), LXIX, 383. 16. V. Dolgorukii to Supreme Privy Council, 30 Sept. 1727, SIRIO, LXXIX, 120-22. 17. Council order of 27 Sept. 1727; council journal, 17 Nov. 1727, SIRIO, LXIX, 380, 773.

18. C. H. von Manstein, Contemporary Memoirs of Russia from the Year 1727 to 1744 (London: Langman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1856; reprinted London: Frank Cass and Co., 1968), p. 59. 19. Ibid. Concerning Russo-Persian relations another contemporary drew this con- clusion: "At all events, however, the sterility and the bad air of the Persian provinces situated along the Caspian Sea, which would necessarily be the theatre of the war, seem to insure a long peace between those two empires." Getters from Count Algarotti to Lord Harvey and the Marquis Scipio Maffei, Containing the State of the Trade, Marine, Revenues, and Forces of the Russian Empire ... tr. from Italian (Glasgow: Printed for Robert Urie, 1770), p. 79. 20. Manstein, pp. 92-101, 115, 123, 184, 211; B. Ts. Urlanis, Voiny i narodo-nase- lenie Evropy (Moscow: Izd. sotsial'no-ekonomicheskoi literatury, 1960), p. 266. 21. Utterstrom, pp. 128-31; Urlanis, pp. 262-63. 22. Urlanis, pp. 263-65. While insisting that Russia lost less men in the field than Prussia did, another study concedes that the losses of recruits were enormous. S. A. Semeka, Meditsinskoe obespechenie russkoi armii vo vremia Semiletnei voiny 1756- 1763 gg. (Moscow: n. p., 1961), pp. 48-59, 70, 92-95. 23. SA, XI, 14-15, 28.

24.SA, XII, 127-28, 132. 25. D. M. Rossiiskii, Istoriia vseobshchei i otechestvennoi meditsiny i zdravookh- raneniia: BibZiografiia (996-1954 gg.) (Moscow: Medgiz, 1956), pp. 403-04, 412. 26. B. N. Palkin, Ocherki istorii meditsiny i zdravookhraneniia zapadnoi Sibiri i Kazakhstana v period prisoedinenii k Rossii (1716-1868J (Novosibirsk: Zapadnoe- Sibirskoe knizhnoe izdatel'stvo, 1967), p. 301. 27. Semeka, pp. 51-59, 62-64, 69-70, 75, 80, 122-28; S. M. Solov'ev, Istoriia Rossii s drevneishikh vremen, 15 vols. (Moscow: "Nauka", 1959-66), XII, 434-38. 28. Vasil'ev and Segal, pp. 165, 169-71; Zapiski Imperatritsy Ekateriny Vtoroi (ST. Petersburg: Izdanie A. S. Suvorina, 1907), pp. 116-20, 145, 151-52, 154-55.

29. Rossiiskii, pp. 499, 501-02, 504; Vasil'ev and Segal, pp. 171-73; Ia. A. Chistovich, Istoriia pervykh nzeditsinskhkh. shkol v Rossii (St. Petersburg: Tipografiia Iakova Treia, 1883), app. X, ccclvi; V. O. Gubert, Ospa i ospoprivivanie, Vol. I: Istoricheskii ocherk do XIX stoletiia (ST. Petersburg: Tipografiia P. P. Soikina, 1896), pp. 188-91. 30. John Cook, Voyages and Travels through the Russian Empire, Tartary, and Part of the Kingdom of Persia, 2 vols. (Edinburgh: For the author, 1770), I, 248. For general medical conceptions of fever at the time, see Lester S. King, TheMedical World of the Eighteenth Century (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1958), ch. v. 31. Cook, I, 248.

32. Johann Jacob Lerche, Lebens- und Reise-Ceschichte von ihn selbst geschrieben und mit Anmerkungen und Zusatzen von Dr. Anton Friedrich Busching (Halle: Verlegt von Curts Witwe, 1791), pp. 180-83. 33. Cook, I, 248. 34. Lerche, pp. 13-17; Cook, I, 417. 35. Cook, I, 388-90; Ia. A. Chistovich, "Morovaia iazva 1738 goda (po offitsiial'nym istochnikam)," Voenno-meditsinskii zhurnal, 127 (Sept. 1876), 100. 36. Chistovich, Ocherki, pp. 17-84. 37. SA, XI, 266-68. 38. SA, XII, 14, 19, 46.

39. B. N. Palkin, Russkie gospital'nye shkoly XVIII veka i ikh vospitanniki (Moscow: Medgiz, 1959), p. 154; idem, 'K istorii fabrichno-zavodskoi meditsiny v Rossii XVIII veka," Zdravookhranenie Kazakhstana, No. 5 (1953), p. 31. 40. SA, IX, 579-604, 607-16, 621; XII, 61-72, 78-82, 84-85. For general legislation about and treatment of cattle plague, see Richter, III, 317-23. 41. Palkin, Russkie gospital'nye shkoly, pp. 118-19. 42. Olwen H. Hufton, "The Rise of the People: Life and Death among the Very Poor," in The Eighteenth Century: Europe in the Age of Enlightenment, ed. Alfred Cobban (London: Thames and Hudson, 1969), pp. 293-94. See also Jean-Noel Biraben, Les hommes et la peste en France et dans les pays europeens et mediterraneens, 2 vols. (Paris and La Haye: Mouton, 1975-76). 43. Register of Admiralty personnel in Oct. 1727, SIRIO, LXIX, 668-69.

44. Admiralty correspondence with port of Astrakhan', 28 July-28 Sept. 1727, in S. S. Mikhailov, Meditsinskaia sluzhba russkogo flota v XVIII veke: Materialy k istorii otechestvennoi meditsiny (Leningrad: Medgiz, 1957), pp. 201-09. 45. Gov. Ivan von Mengden (Astrakhan') to Supreme Privy Council, 5 Sept. 1727, SIRIO, LXIX, 368. 46. Col. Savenkov (Tsaritsyn) to council, 17 and 24 Jan. 1728, SIRIO, LXXIX, 61, 133. 47. Mengden to council, 23 Nov. 1727, 1 Jan., 3 Beb., 30 April and 3 May 1728, ibid., 51-55, 181, 476, 488. 48. Mengden to council, 3 May and 24 June 1728, SIRIO, LXXIX, 488-89; LXXXIV, 228-30. 49. Mengden to council, 3 July 1728, SIRIO, LXXXIV, 558-60; Vasil'ev and Segal, pp. 103-04.

50. Mengden to council, 3 July, 28 Aug. and 29 Nov. 1728, SIRIO, LXXXIV, 558- 62; XCIV, 34. 51. F. A. Derbek, Istoriia chumnykh epidemii v Rossii so osnovaniia gosudarstva do nastoiashchego vremeni (St. Petersburg: Tipografiia Ia. Treia, 1905), p. 84; Vasil'ev and Segal, p. 104. 52. Gen. V. Dolgorukii (Tsaritsyn) to council, 29 April 1728; Admiralty to council, 25 June 1728; Mengden to council, 29 March and 28 Aug. 1728, SIRIO, LXXIX, 344; LXXXIV, 31, 225-28, 562-64. 53. Tertius Chandler and Gerald Fox, 3000 Years of Urban Growth (New York and London: Academic Press, 1974), p. 160; N. B. Golikova, Astrakhanskoe vosstanie 1705-1706 gg. (Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Moskovskogo universiteta, 1975), pp. 61-63. 54. Council journal, 27 Sept. 1727, SIRIO, LXIX, 374-75. 55. PSZ, VIII, No. 5,231 (30 Jan. 1728); No. 5,347 (29 Feb. 1728). 56. Savenkov to council, 15, 20 and 25 Feb. 1728; council order 7 March 1728; Savenkov to council, 26 April 1728, SIRIO, LXXIX, 179, 186-87, 190, 479.

57. Council discussion of reports from Saratov, 22 July 1728, SIRIO, LXXXIV, 188-91. 58. Council discussion and journal, 14 and 19 Aug. 1728, ibid., 386-88. 59. Council order, 13 June 1729; Blumentrost to council, 8 June 1729; Blumen- trost's quarantine instructions of 9 June 1729, SIRIO, XCIV, 765-69. 60. Vasil'ev and Segal, p. 102, Mikhailov, p. 213; PSZ, VIII, No. 5,333 (12 Sept. 1728), art. 38.

61. For outbreaks in the 1730s and mid-1750s, see SA, II, 2-7, 25-27; IX, 579-604. 62. SA, II, 7-10. 63. Mikhailov, p. 199; PSZ, VIII, No. 5,472 (30 Sept. 1729); I. D. Kozubenko and M. T. Koveisha, "Iz istorii meditsinskogo obsluzhivaniia v Taganroge," Sovetskoe zdravo- okhranenie, 31, No. 6 (1972), 71. Jonas Hanway underwent quarantine at Astrakhan' in 1744 and vividly recorded the experience in his An Historical Account of British Trade over the Caspian Sea, 4 vols. (London: sold by Mr. Dodsley et al., 1753), II, 3-5. 64. Derbek, pp. 91-107. 65. Chistovich, "Morovaia iazva 1738 goda," pp. 73-99.

66. Lerche, pp. 138-82. 67. Chistovich, "Morovaia iazva 1738 goda," p. 73.

68.SIRIO, CXXIV, 231. 69. Palkin, Russkie gospital'nye shkoly, 257-58; Chistovich, "Morovaia iazva 1738 goda," pp. 97-99; Rossiiskii, Istoriia, p. 407. 70. Richter, III, 245. 71. Quarantines could exacerbate losses, too; a naval officer reported that one servant and fifteen men of his corps died in quarantine near the river Orel in. the spring of 1740 while enroute back to central Russia. See "Zapnisnaia kniga I. M. Griaznova, 1730-1753 gg.," Shchukinskii sbornik, fasc. 6 (Moscow: Tip. Tovarishchestva A. I. Mamontova, 1907), p. 29. 72. Chistovich, Istoriia, pp. 614-32. 73. SA, IX, 122, 144-46, 157-58, 255-56, 284, 308, 374, 466. 74. PSZ, XIV, No. 10, 365 (22 Feb. 1755); SA, IX, 259, 271-73, 502, 570.

75. SA, XI, 383-84. 76. SA, XII, 70; Semeka, p. 40; Palkin, Ocherki, p. 397.

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