A Neglected Account of the Succession Crisis of 1730: James Keith's Memoir. *

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A Neglected Account of the Succession Crisis of 1730: James Keith's Memoir. *

in Canadian-American Slavic Studies

References

*This contribution is intended as a companion piece to the thorough treatment in this volume of the 1730 crisis by James Cracraft ("The Succession Crisis of 1730: A View from the Inside"). The reader is urged to consult Cracraft's article for detailed discussion of the events of 1730 and an analysis of the source material. We are indebted to Professor Cracraft for his helpful comments on the draft of our paper. 1. D. A. Korsakov, the major historian of Anna's accession, did not include Keith among his list of sources inVotsarenie Imperatritsy Anny loannovny (Kazan': Impera- torskii universitet, 1880); neither did S. M. Troitskii in his recent historiographical survey, "Istoriografiia 'dvortsovykh perevorotov' v Rossii XVIII v.", Voprosy istorii, 41, No. 2 (Feb. 1966), 38-53.

2. Andrew Bisset, Memoirs and Papers of Sir Andrew Mitchell, 2 vols. (London: Chapman and Hall, 1850), II, 444-45. 3. Ibid., p. 498.

4. The list of the generalitet was edited by M. Longinov, "Russkii generalitet v nachale 1730 goda," in P. I. Bartenev, ed., Osmandtsatyi vek. Istoricheskii sbornik, 4 vols. (Moscow: n.p., 1869), III, 161-77. 5. J. Keith, A Fragment of a Memoir of Field Marshal James Keith, 1714-1734 (Edinburgh: Spalding Club, 1843). See page 95, where Keith refers to Anna as having been empress for five years, and pages 123-24, where he speaks in the present tense of being in winter quarters before a spring offensive planned for 1735. 6. For a summary and a critique of this historiographical tradition, see G. A. Pro- tasov, " 'Konditsii' 1730 g. i ikh prodolzhenie," Uchenye zapiski. Tambovskii gosu- darstvennyi pedagochiskii institut, 15 (1957), 215-21; for an English edition of the "Conditions," see M. Raeff, ed. Plans for Political Reform in Emperial Russia (Engle- wood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966), pp. 45-46. 7. D. A. Korsakov and P. N. Miliukov believed that in addition to the "Conditions," Golitsyn had an elaborate political plan to remodel Russia along constitutional lines. The existence of such a plan has been questioned repeatedly. For a good discussion of the controversy, see D. Ransel, "Political Perceptions of the Russian Nobility: The Constitutional Crisis of 1730," Laurentian University Review, 4, No. 3 (June 1972), 29-30.

8. Ransel argues effectively against this tradition: Ibid., p. 35. Compare Keith's remarks with those by V. N. Tatishchev in his "Voluntary and Agreed Dissertation and Opinion of the Assembled Russian Nobility about the State Government," in Russia Under Cathertne the Great, ed. and trans., Paul Dukes V. I, Select Documents on Gov- ernment and Society (Newtonville, Mass: Oriental Research Partners, forthcoming 1978). 9. On the controversy over the wording of the oath of loyalty, see in this issue James Cracraft, "The Succession Crisis of 1730: A View from the Inside." 10. Texts of several of the projects have been published in Korsakov, Appendix, pp. 9-19; V. Kashpirev, Pamiatniki novoi russkoi istorii, I, pt. 2 (St. Petersburg, 1871), 1-16; Utro. Literaturnyi sbornik (Moscow, 1859), pp. 368-79; and in English in Raeff, pp. 49-51.

11. Opposition to the plans of the Supreme Privy Council should not be viewed as the hostile reaction of a "rank-and-file" nobility to an aristocratic council. A detailed analysis of the content and signatures of the projects indicates: that the leadership throughout the crisis was aristocratic; that several of the projects were compromise modifications of the "Conditions;" and that the hostility to the Supreme Privy Council- and resultant petition for an overthrow of the "Conditions"-stemmed from a refusal on the part of the Council to expand participation in the central policy-making body so as to include representatives of other kinship-patronage networks. For an elaboration of this argument, see B. Meehan, "The Russian Generalitet of 1730: Towards a Defini- tion of Aristocracy," unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Rochester, 1970, pp. 179-218. 12. Korsakov, pp. 115-16. 13. Meehan, pp. 189-206.

11. Opposition to the plans of the Supreme Privy Council should not be viewed as the hostile reaction of a "rank-and-file" nobility to an aristocratic council. A detailed analysis of the content and signatures of the projects indicates: that the leadership throughout the crisis was aristocratic; that several of the projects were compromise modifications of the "Conditions;" and that the hostility to the Supreme Privy Council- and resultant petition for an overthrow of the "Conditions"-stemmed from a refusal on the part of the Council to expand participation in the central policy-making body so as to include representatives of other kinship-patronage networks. For an elaboration of this argument, see B. Meehan, "The Russian Generalitet of 1730: Towards a Defini- tion of Aristocracy," unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Rochester, 1970, pp. 179-218. 12. Korsakov, pp. 115-16. 13. Meehan, pp. 189-206.

1. Prince Aleksei Grigorevich Dolgorukii (d. 1723), member of the Supreme Privy Council, and Master of the Hunt; father of Prince Ivan Alekseevich Dolgorukii, favorite of Emperor Peter II, and of Princess Ekaterina Alekseevna, fiancee of Peter II. 2. Prince Ivan Alekseevich Dolgorukii (1708-1739), favorite of Emperor Peter II. At the age of twenty-two, he held the ranks of general and Chief Chamberlain, and was a Knight of the Order of St. Andrew. 3. Emperor Peter II died early in the morning of 18 January 1730, according to the Julian calendar which was introduced in Russia during Peter the Great's reign. For the eighteenth century, it ran eleven days behind the Gregorian calendar.

4. Count Gavril Ivanovich Golovkin (1660-1734), chancellor, president of the College of Foreign Affairs, and a member of the Surpeme Privy Council. 5. Prince Dmitrii Mikhailovich Golitsyn (1665-1738), president of the Commerce College, senator and member of the Supreme Privy Council. 6. Anna Ivanaovna (1693-1740), Duchess of Courland, was the widowed daughter of Tsar Ivan V who, with Peter I, had been co-tsar of Russia from 1689 to 1696. 7. Pavel Ivanovich Iaguzhinskii (1683-1736), general, chamberlain, and director of the imperial stables. 8. Keith is unique among contemporary accounts in reporting that Anna suggested from Mitau that the form of government should not be settled until she arrived in Moscow. He is probably mistaken in this, for on 28 January 1730 Anna sent a letter to the Supreme Privy Council from Mitau which has generally been interpreted as an acceptance on her part of the proposed restrictions on monarchical rule. The text of this letter is reprinted in Korsakov, pp. 118-19. We are indebted to Professor James Cracraft for pointing out that Keith is unique on this point. 9. Prince Vasilii Lukich Dolgorukii (1672-1739), member of the Supreme Privy Council.

10. Count Andrei Ivanovich Osterman (1686-1747), member of the Supreme Privy Council, vice-chancellor and vice-president of the College of Foreign Affairs. 11. Emperor Peter I (1672-1725). 12. Count Burchard Christoph Munnich (1683-1767), general. 13. Count Ernst Johann Buhren (1690-1772), Empress Anna's favorite.

14. Baron Johann Albrecht Korff (1697-1766). 15. Count Karl Gustav Lowenwolde (d. 1735); appointed Colonel of the Izmailov- skii Guards Regiment upon its creation in 1730. 16. Count Reinhold Gustav Lowenwolde (1693-1758). 17. Peter Bogdanovich Lefort, nephew of General Francis Lefort (d. 1699) who was an import military advisor to Peter I. 18. James Francis Fitzjames Stuart, Duke of Liria and Berwick (1693-1738), Spanish ambassador to Russia. A Scot by origin, he helped Keith receive his appointment to the Russian service in 1728.

19.PolnoesobraniezakonovRossiiskoiImperii;poveleniemGosudariaImperatoraNikolaiaPavlovichasostavlennoe. Sobranie pervoe. S 1649 po 12 dekabria 1825 goda [St. Petersburg: Tip. II Otdeleniia Sobstvennoi Ego Imperatorskago Velichestva kan- tseliarii, 1830], VI, No. 3893, 5 Feb. 1722. 20. Ibid., V, no. 2789, 23 March 1714.

21. Prince Vasilii Vladimirovich Dolgorukii (1667-1746), field marshal and member of the Supreme Privy Council.

22. For the charges brought against Field Marshal V. V. Dolgorukii, see ibid., VIII, no. 5915, 23 Dec. 1731. On the composition of the trial, see "Bumagy Kabineta minist- rov Imperatristy Anny Ioannovny, 1731-1740 gg," in Sbornik Imperatorskago russkago istoricheskago obshchestva, 148 vols. (St. Petersburg-Petrograd: Tip. M. M. Strasiu- levicha, 1867-1916), CIV, 88-89; for its comparison to other elite trials, see B. Meehan- Waters, "Elite Politics and Autocratic Power," in Britain and Russia: Contacts and Comparisons, 1700-1800, ed. A. G. Cross (Newtonville, Mass.: Oriental Research Part- ners, forthcoming 1978).

Anderson, Robert, "Field Marshal Keith: A Discourse," Transactions of the Buchan Field Club, X (Peterhead: Buchan Field Club, 1910).

Formey, Jean Henri Smauel, A Discourse on the Death of Marshal Keith, trans. fron the original French (Edinburgh: John Balfour, 1764).

Heinrich, E., Ein Feldmarshall Friedrichs des Grossen (Altenberg: Stephan Ceiber, 1895).

Paczynski-Tenczyn, Lebenschreibung des General-Feldmarschalls Keith (Berlin: Mittler und Sohn, 1889).

Russkiibiograficheskii slovar', 25 vols. (St. Petersburg and Petrograd: Russkoe istoricheskoe obshchestvo 1896-1918), VIII, 605-07.

Varnhagen von Ense, Feldmarschall Jakob Keith (Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1873).

Some further information may be obtained from:

Bisset, Andrew, Memoirs and Papers of Sir Andrew Mitchell, 2 vols. (London: Chapman and Hall, 1850).

Cuthell, Edith E. The Scottish Friend of Frederick the Great: The Last Earl Marischall, 2 vols. (London: Stanley Paul, 1915).

Steuart, A. F. Scottish Influences in Russian History from the End of the Sixteenth to the Beginning of the Nineteenth century, (Glasgow: James MacLehose, 1913).

Tsentral'nyi gosudarstvennyi voenno-istoricheskii arkhiv SSSR: f. 12 ("Imenye ukazy imperatritsy Anny Ioannovny. 1730-1741"), op. 13, d. 13, 1.328. (General Keith's appointment on 2 March 1740 to command Ukrainian regiments.)

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