1. The phrase is from V. O. Kliuchevskii's article "Dva vospitaniia," Russkaiamysl', 14, no. 3 (1893), 90, which contains a lively discussion of Betskoi's educational princi- ples. Although excluded from Soviet republications of Kliuchevskii's work, this interesting piece has recently been translated into English with commentary by Max Okenfuss and will, I trust, soon appear in print.
2. P. M. Maikov, IvanIvanovichBetskoi:opyt egobiografli (St. Petersburg: Obshchest- vennaia pol'za, 1904), pp. 132, 450. The appendices to this work contain extensive ex- tracts from Betskoi's correspondence.
3. Ibid., pp. 402-06. 4. Early in her reign Catherine had spoken in favor of enlightened education for both sexes equally, but by the 1780s she was taking a much different position, saying that fe- male education should be directed solely toward making good householders, faithful wives and mothers. Ibid., pp. 285-87.
5.Ibid., p. 324, and appendices 138-39. 6.Kratkoenastavlenievybrannoeizluchshikhavtorovsnekotorymifizicheskimiprimechaniiamiovospitaniideteiotrozhdeniiaikhdoiunoshestva (St. Petersburg: Senatskaia tipografiia, 1766); at least six editions appeared between 1766 and 1768. 7. E. Durkheim, L'evolutionpedagogiqueenFrance, I (Paris: F. Alcan, 1938), 126- 45; P. Aries, CenturiesofChildhood (New York: Vintage Books, 1962), pp. 155-75; Richard Trexler, "Ritual in Florence: Adolescence and Salvation in the Renaissance," in ThePursuitofHolinessinLateMedievalandRenaissanceReligion, ed. Charles Trinkaus (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1974), pp. 200-64. 8. The basic principles are stated in his report, "General'noe uchrezhdenie o vospitanii oboego pola iunoshestva," which as confirmed by the empress appears in PolnoesobraniezakonovRossiiskoiimperii, 1st series, 30 vols. (St. Petersburg: Kantselariia EIV, 1830),
1764, No. 12103; reprinted in appendices to Maikov, Betskoi, pp. 7-10. For specific regulations as they applied to, for example, the Smol'nyi school, see Ustavvospitaniiadvukhsotblagorodnykhdevitsuchrezhdennagoe.v.gosudaryneiuimp.EkaterinoiuVtoroiu (St. Petersburg: Akademiia nauk, 1768), IX, 49-56. 9. Materialydliaistoriiimperatorskagomoskovskagovospitatel'nagodoma, ed. V. Drashusov, 2 vols. (Moscow: Tipografiia Semena, 1863), I, sect. 2, 1-39. 10. Maikov, Betskoi, pp. 330-31; his board of governors took the rather more reason- able position that the incident was a case of culture shock that would correct itself.
11. Kliuchevskii, "Dva vospitaniia," p. 92. l2.Ibid., pp. 93-99. 13.'The siting of the commercial school in the foundling home complex may have given the school a special handicap, as merchants probably viewed this association as de- meaning. Enrollment figures and discussion in Maikov, Betskoi, pp. 412-15.
14. M. N. Sokolovskii, "Petr Velikii kak blagotvoritel'," Vestnikblagotvoritel'nosti, No. 7-8 (1901), pp. 21-22; idem., "Blagotvoritel'nost' pri preemnikakh Petra Velikago," ibid., No. 10 (1901), pp. 60-61; A. Piatkovskii, "Nachalo vospitatel'nykh domov v Ross- ii," VestnikEvropy, No. 6 (1875), pp. 271-72; M. Oshanin, 0prizreniipokinutykhdetei (laroslavl': A. Kh. Oppel', 1912), p. 13. 15. On the differences between the approaches of Peter and Catherine, see A. I. Za- belin, Vekovyeopytynashikhvospitatel'nykhdomov (St. Petersburg, 1891), p. 10; dis- cussion of money payments in Piatkovskii, "Nachalo," pp. 298-99.
16. I. I. Betskoi, UchrezhdenieImperatorskagoVospitatel'nagodomadliaprinosnykhdeteiigoshpitalia:dliabednykhrodil'nitsvstolichnomgorodeMoskve (St. Petersburg: Akademiia nauk, 1763), esp. pp. 21-23, 35-37. 17. See the recent discussion of several of these in S. M. Troitskii, "Dvorianskie pro- ekty sozdaniia 'tret'ego china,' " in Obshchestvoigosudarstvofeodal'noiRossii,Sbornikstatei,posviashchennyi70-letiiuakademikaL'vaVladimirovichaCherepnina (Moscow: Nauka, 1975), pp. 226-36. 18. See, for example, his UrchrezhdenieImperatorskagoVospitatel'nagodoma, pp. 7-8, 16-19; Betskoi even projected his own catechism for the children, as translated West- ern ones were designed more for philosophers and clergy than for artisans, who were to be taught respect for superiors, value of humility and such, all in the form of simple ques- tions and answers. N. V. Iablokov, "Prizrenie detei v vospitatel'nykh domakh," Trudovaiapomoshch', No. 4 (1901), p. 420.
19. M. Strange [Shtrange] , "Jean-Jacques Rousseau et ses contemporains russes," Annaleshistoriquesdelarevolutionfranpaise, No. 170 (1962), pp. 518-19. 20. Ibid., p. 519.
21. Home privileges listed in Betskoi, Uchrezhdenie, pp. 42-61; on the independence of the board of guardians of the homes and comparison to zemstvo administration, see Maikov, Betskoi, pp. 146-49; success of the bank discussed by Piatkovskii, "Nachalo," p. 281; cases of serf children in homes, Materialydliaistorii, II, 34-35. Betskoi defends himself from charge of running a state within a state in a letter to Catherine, reproduced in Maikov, Betskoi, appendices, pp. 116-18. 22. Extensive listings of early contributors and amounts donated may be found in Materialydliaistorii, I, sect. 3, 42-69. 23. Philanthropists were also granted freedom from corporal punishment. Piatkovskii, "Nachalo," pp. 278-79; Maikov, Betskoi, p. 187. 24. A list of the nearly thirty provincial shelters opened during this time with their sponsors is in M. D. Van Puteren, Istoricheskiiobzorprizreniiavnebrachnykhdeteiipodkidyshei (St. Petersburg, 1908), pp. 82-83. 25. A. A. Kizevetter, "Odin iz reformatorov russkoi shkoly," in his Istoricheskieocherki (Moscow: Levenson, 1912), esp. pp. 138-40.