Culture and Enlightenment: Julius von Canitz and the Kazan' Gimnazii in the Eighteenth Century

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1.PolnoesobraniezakonovRossiiskoiImperii,Sobraniepervoe, 45 vols. (St. Peters- burg: Tip. II Otd. Sobst. E. I. V. Kantseliarii, 1830) [hereafter MZL XV, No. 10860, 21 July 1758, quoted in full by V. Vladimirov, Istoricheskaia zapiska o 1-oi Kazanskoi gim- nazii, i XVIII stoletie (Kazan': V Universitetskoi Tipografii, 1867), pp. 18-19. The essen- tial privileges accorded to Moscow University and so to the Kazan' schools, were: subor- dination only to the Senate; staff to be under jurisdiction of the university alone; exemp- tion for staff from all quartering and other levies. Ibid., p. 144. In fact, of course, the schools were subordinate to the university. 2. A. I. Artem'ev, "Kazanskie gimnazii v XVIII st.," Zhurnal Ministerstva narodnago prosveshcheniia [hereafter ZMNP], 173 (May 1874), 43.

3. On these schools, their curricula and student numbers, see ibid., pp. 34-38; M. F. Vladimirskii-Budanov, Gosudarstvo i narodnoe obrazovanie v Rossii XVIII veka (laro- slavl'' Tip. Fel'ka, 1874), pp. 60-87; and D. Zinov'ev, Topograficheskoe opisanie gorodii Kazani i ego uezda (Moscow: Univ. Tip. u N. I. Novikova, 1788), pp. 38-41. 4. Vladimirov, p. 87. The school provided a base for the creation of Kazan' Univer- sity in 1804, and the two institutions remained connected until 1814. On the events leading to the closure, see D. A. Tolstoi, "Vzgliad na uchebnuiu chast' v Rossii v XVIII stoletii do 1782 goda", Sb. otdeleniia russkago iazyka i slovesnosti Imp. Akad. Nauk, 38, No. 4 (1886), 46-47. P. Polz, "Theodor Jankovic und die Schulreform in Russland," in E. Lesky et al., eds., Die Aufklarung in Ost- und Sudosteuropa (Koln/Wien: Bohlau Vg., 1972), p. 153, is not quite accurate here. 5. PSZ, XV, No. 11144, 15 Nov. 1760, Quoted by I. Aleshintsev, Istoriia gimnazi- cheskago obrazovaniia v Rossii (XYIII i XIX v.) (St. Petersburg: Izd. O. Bogdanovoi, 1912) p. 9, note. Cf. S. Shevyrev, Istoriia Imperatorskago Universiteta, napisannaia k stoletnemu ego iubileiu, 1755-1855 (Moscow: Imp. Mosk. Univ., 1855), pp. 53-54; Vlad- imirskii-Budanov, pp. 215-16. 6. Aleshintsev, p. 9.

7. Artem'ev, ZMNP, 176 (Nov. 1874), 1-27; Vladimirov, pp. 126-30. 8. Dokumenty i materialy po istorii Moskovskogo Universiteta vtoroi poloviny XVIII v., ed. N. Penchko, 3 vols. (Moscow: Mosk. Gos. Un-t, 1960-63), II, 326. Russkii biogra- ficheskii slovar', vol. Ibak-Kliucharev (St. Petersburg: 1879), 446-47. 9. Ibid., Artem'ev, ZMNP, 172 (July 1874), 1-2; Vladimirov, p. 100. 10. See, for example, Sochineniia Derzhavina s ob'iasnitel'nymi primechaniiami 1a. Grota, 9 vols. (St. Petersburg: Tip. Imp. Akad. Nauk, 1864-83) [hereafter Groti, VIII (Biografiia Derzhavina), 35-59; A. Zapadov, G. R. Derzhavin (Moscow: Molddaia Gvardi- ia, 1958), pp. 16-28.

11. Grot, VIII, 59; Zapadov, pp. 23-24. 12. Grot, VI (Zapiski Derzhavina), 419-20.

13. Artem'ev, ZMNP, 173 (May 1874), 88; Vladimirov, p. 96. Even after Canitz's assumption of the directorship, the school still attracted adverse judgments. In 1767 Count V. G. Orlov inspected it during the imperial tour down the Volga. Pupils made speeches to him in German, French, Russian, and Latin, but he found that "the successes of the students are very incomplete, as I attested them myself." Quoted in Tolstoi, "Vzgliad," p. 45. 14. Artem'ev, ZMNP, 173 (May 1874), 92-94; 174 (July 1874), 26; Vladimirov, pp. 98-99. 15. Artem'ev, ZMNP, 173 (May 1874), 93; 174 (July 1874), 27-8; Tolstoi, pp. 45, 47. 16. Artem'ev, ZMNP, 173 (May 1874), 90, gives a full description of the school buildings, compiled for Moscow University by Director Kozhin in 1764.

17. Artem'ev, ZMNP, 174 (July 1874), 2-3. 18.1bid., p. 29. 19. Vladimirov, p. 126. The corps strength was seventy-four, including several dvo- rovye liudi belonging to Canitz and thirty-nine pupils over sixteen years of age. 20. Given at length by Vladimirov, pp. 119-24.

21. A full list of the subjects first taught at the school is given in ibid., pp. 33-34. 22. Ibid., pp. 28-29; Artem'ev, ZMNP, 173 (May 1874), 93. 23. He suggested ensign for the teachers of junior classes, lieutenant for those of senior classes, and captain or titular counsellor for the school inspector. 24. Artem'ev, ZMNP, 174 (July 1874), 8-9; Vladimirov, p. 120. 25. Dokumenty i materialy, III, 204-05, 220-21. 26. Artem'ev, ZMNP, 174 (July 1874), 7-8; Vladimirov, pp. 108-10.

27.Ibid., ch. 2, pp. 44-77, covers the whole period to the abolition of the Oriental Faculty of Kazan' University by its transfer to St. Petersburg University in 1855; Artem'- ev, ZMNP, 174 (July 1874), 24-25, adds details of the Khal'fins; I. M. Kovalevskii, Obozrenie khoda i uspekhov prepodavaniia aziatskikh iazykov v Imperatorskom Kazan- skom Universitete do nastoiashego vremeni (Kazan': V Universitetskoi Tipografii, 1842), a characteristically stark nineteenth-century account, has brief but useful comments on the early period. 28. M. Sychev-Mikhailov, Iz istorii russkoi shkoly i pedagogiki XYlll v. (Moscow: Izd. Akad. Pegagogich. nauk RSFSR, 1960), pp. 119-29, and Appendix 8, pp. 160-66 (full text of Sposob reproduced). Cf. M. N. Tikhomirov, ed., Istoriia Moskovskogo Uni- versiteta 1755-1955, 2 vols. (Moscow: Mosk. Gos. Un-t, 1955), I, 37; Shevyrev, pp. 179- 81; Svodnyi katalog russkoi knigi grazhdanskoi pechati 1725-1800, 5 vols. and'supple- ment (Moscow: Gos. Bibl SSSR im. V. I. Lenina, 1962-75) [hereafter SKI, nos. 6809, 6810. The Sposob appeared in four languages and went into two editions. 29. Artem'ev, ZMNP, 174 (July 1874), 28-29, 45-47.

30.Ibid., pp. 27, 51-52. 31. Ibid., ZMNP, 176 (Nov. 1874), 41. Verevkin's attempt to organise staff meetings on similar lines, but apparently focusing more on administrative questions, had been banned by the university as being outside the teachers' duties. 32. Details in Artem'ev, ZMNP, 176 (Nov. 1874), 37-38. 33. Ibid., ZMNP, 174 (July 1874), 1-2; 176 (Nov. 1874), 40, 48-49; Vladimirov, p. 108. See also Tolstoi, "Vzgliad," p. 44. 34. Bibliograficheskie zapiski, No. 24 (1858), p. 743. The anonymous publisher of the two letters printed here, in Russian, is equally well-disposed to Canitz. (The original letters were in German: Artem'ev, ZMNP, 174 [July 1874 ], 33). 35. Artem'ev, ZMNP, 176 (Nov. 1874), 48. 36. Ibid. ,

37. Artem'ev, ZMNP, 173 (May 1874), 74, gives Verevkin's detailed report of the celebration of the anniversary of the opening of Moscow University in 1760. The play presented on this occasion was Moliere's Ecole iles Maris; Verevkin wrote complacently to I. I. Shuvalov "There, my dear sir, Moliere is already known in Tartary as well!" 38. Wishing to collect money for his poorer pupils, but unwilling to make a charge to the public for the play, Canitz placed a dish to receive voluntary contributions for the cost of properties and candles; the proceeds were then in part distributed among the pupils. 39. Bibliograficheskie zapiski, No. 24 (1858), p. 739. 40. Artem'ev, ZMNP, 174 (July 1874), 20; Vladimirov, p. 113. Canitz was also re- sponsible for designing one of the two triumphal arches erected in Kazan' for Catherine's arrival, which he had constructed near the school. His description of it was published by the university, SK, No. 2779; N. N. Mel'nikova, Izdaniia napechatannye v Tipografii

MoskovskogoUniversitetaXVIIIv. (Moscow: Mosk. Gos. Un-t, 1966), No. 327. Cather- ine was impressed by Kazan's decorations: "... there are triumphal arches here better than any I have seen before," she wrote to N. I. Panin. Chteniia v Obshchestve istorii i drevnostei rossiiskikh pri Imp. Moskovsk. Universitete, No. 2 (1863), pp. 24-25, No. 51, letter of 27 May 1767. 41. Artem'ev, ZMNP, 174 (July 1874), 30-32; Vladimirov, pp. 114-16. 42. Ibid., pp. 116-18; Artem'ev, ZMNP, 174 (July 1874), 43-44. 43. Artem'ev, ZMNP, 176 (Nov. 1874), 1; Vladimirov, p. 119. ,

44.Grot, V (Perepiska 1773-93), 352, No. 315, 9 March 1780. On Meshcherskii's appointment and movements, cf. ibid., Nos. 313-15. 45. Prolog v vysokotorzhestvennyi den' rozhdeniia E.I. V., predstavlennyi v Kazan- skikh gimnaziiakh blagorodnymi uchenikami (Moscow: pri Imp. Mosk. Univ., 1765); Prolog v den'rozhdeniia Imperatritsy Ekateriny II (Moscow: pri Imp. Mosk Univ., 1771). Mel'nikova, Nos. 283, 545, SK, No. 5717. They were also printed in Moskovskie vedo- mosti. 46. Melissino wrote at length, in German, praising both the prologue and Canitz's efforts on behalf of the school, and also adding friendly critical comments which Canitz had requested. He added that, if Canitz found these acceptable, he could "make the change in the original of the prologue, which I send back attached.... And if then a good Russian translation is made, I will without fail send this composition to be printed". 47. Artem'ev, ZMNP, 174 (July 1874), 3. 48.Ibid., p. 37.

49.RedewelcheineinerpublikenVersammlung,beydenenKazanischenGymnasiennachWiederherstellungderoffentlichenRuhe1775gehaltenwurde (Moscow: bei der Kaiserlichen Moskowischen Universitat, n.d.). Mel'nikova, No. 827; H.L.C. Bacmeister, Russische Bibliothek, zur Kenntnis des gegenwdrtigen Zustandes der Literatur in Russ- land, 11 vols. (St. Petersburg-Riga-Leipzig: bey Joh. Friedr. Harknoch, 1772-89), V, 445-50, No. DLXXXVIII; Slovo v publichnom sobranii pri Kazanskikh gimnaziiakh po vostanovlenii obshchego pokoia, govorennoe 1775 g. (Moscow: pri Imp. Mosk. Univ., n.d.). Mel'nikova, No. 766; SK, No. 2780. 50. GrotV, 262, No. 272, Canitz to Derzhavin n.d., and note; V, 314, note; Artem'ev, ZMNP, 176 (Nov. 1874), 37, quotes school records of 1779, knows however no detail of the speech or its printing. In spite of the lack of a precise dating, there is no reason to doubt that the published translation was Derzhavin's: but this is noticed neither by SK nor by Mel'nikova.

51.Crot V, 314 and note, 16 Dec. 1778. Other recipients named were "viele der Herren Senators als: Gelagin [Elagin], Teploff, etc.": 328, No. 302, 25 March 1779. Derzhavin had been appointed to the Senate staff in 1777. 52. Canitz forwarded letters between Derzhavin and his mother, as well as other correspondents in the Kazan' area. He also shows some knowledge of Derzhavin family affairs. Furthermore, Derzhavin's younger brother was at the Kazan' school under Canitz: Grot, VI, 449. 53. Grot V, Nos. 294, 297, 299, 300. 54. "Rossiada, Istoricheskoe Predislovie", M. M. Kheraskov: Izbrannye proizvedeniia, ed. A. V. Zapadov, Biblioteka Poeta, Bol'shaia Seriia, Vtoroe Izdanie (Leningrad: Sovet- skii pisatel', 1961), p. 179. 55. Grot, V, 313 No. 295, letter to Derzhavin of 16 Dec. 1778. Kheraskov's letter of thanks to Canitz: V, 877-78, 19 Dec. 1778.

56. Sochineniia L I. Dmitrieva: "Vzgliad na moiu zhizn'," ed. A. A. Floridov (St. Petersburg: Vladimirskaia Tipo-Litografiia, 1895, reprinted by Oriental Research Part- ners [Cambridge, 1974]), p. 59. 57. SK, No. 8024, supplement p. 137;M. M. Kheraskov, p. 387. 58. Sanktpeterburgskii vestnik IV (1779), 125. 59. See in general H. Woolf, The Transits of Venus. A Study ofEighteenth-Cerztury Science (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1959). I am indebted to Dr. G. Turner for this reference.

60. The four Russians were Rumovskii in Selenginsk and Braun, Krasil'nikov, and Kurganov in St. Petersburg. Lomonosov joined with Krasil'nikov and Kurganov in ob- serving the transit and he wrote an account of it, which was not however published at the time. Ibid., pp. 135-40, 188-89 note. By contrast with Russia, Sweden had twenty- one observers. On Chappe, the invitation to Russia, and his acquaintance with Verevkin and Kazan', see also ibid., pp. 115-26; Artem'ev, ZMNP, 173 (May 1874), 82-87. 61. Woolf, pp. 179-83. The final results of this unprecedented exercise in interna- tional scientific cooperation were better than before, but still not conclusive, despite a huge number of reports and papers. Ibid., pp. 188-91. 62. Dokumenty i materialy, II, 327, note, citing S. N. Korytnikov, "Nachalo astrono- mii v Kazani," Istoriko-astronomicheskie issledovaniia, vypusk 1 (1955), 189-206. 63. Dokumenty i materialy II, 211, No. 154.

64.Ibid., II, 212. 65. Artem'ev, ZMNP, 176 (Nov. 1874), 42-46. The Plan struck Artem'ev, who ex- amined a copy in the Cartographic Department of the General Staff, by the care of its execution. In letters to Derzhavin of November, 1779, and March, 1780, Canitz refers to "dem Plaan von der alten Stadt Kasan, der Ihnen und mir Muhe machte," and "den Plaan vom alten Kasan, an dessen Verfertigung, Sie, gutiger Freund, so viellen Antheil haben." Grot, V, 339, No. 310 and 353, No. 315. Derzhavin had. distinguished himself in technical drawing while at the school, and had been employed by Verevkin on carto- graphic projects similar to Canitz's. One wonders as to the exact nature of Derzhavin's part in the production of the Plan. Canitz also produced an (unpublished) "Topographical Description of the Newly-Re- built City of Kazan" (1780). Grot V, 358, No. 319. The rebuilding of the city, to a uni- fied plan, is briefly described in Zinov'ev, pp. 35-38. 66.Grot, V, letters from Canitz to Derzhavin 1778-80, passim. P. I. Rychkov pro- duced a history of Kazan' in 1767; SK, No. 6247. 67. Artem'ev, ZMNP, 176 (Nov. 1874), 38. 68. P. S. Pallas, hrsg., Neue Nordische Beytrdge zur physikalischen und geographischen Erd- und Volkerbeschreibung, Naturgeschichte und Oekonomie, 7 vols. (St. Petersburg- Leipzig: bey Joh. Zach. Logan, 1781-96), I, i, VII: "Bericht von Gebeinen grosser aus- landischer Thiere, welche im Jahre 1776 im Kazanischen gefunden und aufgegraben wor- den," pp. 173-77. Cf. Bacmeister, VII, 455.

69. Artem'ev, ZMNP, 176 (Nov. 1874), 20-21; Vladimirov, p. 28, note. By contrast the school's library on Canitz's arrival in 1765 contained just 96 works. 70. Artem'ev, ZMNP, 174 (July 1874), 2, note. 71. Tsentralnyi Gosudarstvennyi Arkhiv Drevnikh Aktov, Moscow, fond 16, delo 348, listy 1-17, "Predstavlenie chlena lifliandskago Iustits-Kollegii I. Kanitsa o vyzove v Rossiiu inostrantsev dlia poseleniia" (n.d.). G. G. Pisarevskii, I�istorii inostrannoi kolon- izatsii v Rossii v XVIII v. (Moscow: Pechatnia A. I. Snegirovoi, 1909) treats the whole question (Canitz, pp. 80-82).

72. Vladimirov, p. 128, note. 73. Ibid., pp. 29, 130. 74. Grot, V, 364, No. 321, letter to Derzhavin of 22 Nov. 1780.

75.Ibid, p. 328, No. 302, 25 March 1779; cf. 314, No. 295, 16 Dec. 1778. 76. Ibid., pp. 353, 364, Nos. 315, 321, 9 March, 22 Nov. 1780. 77. Ibid., p. 313, No. 294, 4 Dec. 1778; cf. also Artem'ev, ZMNP, 176 (Nov. 1874), 48. - 78. Grot, p. 313, No. 295; p. 359, No. 319; p. 364, No. 321; p. 347, No. 312-Canitz adds here: "O! Wie wurde meine kleine Philosophie auf dem Lande, sich emporschwin- gen!"

79. E. Amburger, "Beitrage zur Geschichte der deutsch - russischen kulturellen Bezie- hungen," GiessenerAbhandlungen zurAgrar- und Wirtschaftsforschungdes europdischen Ostens (Osteuropastudien der Hochschulen des Landes Hessen, Reihe I), Bd. 14 (Giessen: Wilhelm Schmitz Vg., 1961), p. 173. In 1958 P. N. Berkov sketched a programme for re- search into Russian and German contacts-he preferred the term Wechselseitigkeit to Begegnung (P. N. Berkov, "Deutsch-russische kulturelle Beziehungen im 18. Jahrhun- dert", in E. Winter, ed., Die deutsch-russische Begegnung und Leonhard Euler [Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1958], pp. 65-66). This did not include an investigation of individual Germans outside the capitals; and despite the very extensive writings since then of schol- ars in both East and West-notably the circles of E. Winter and G. von Rauch-insuffi- cient work has been done in this area. 80. P. I. Valeskaln, "Predislovie," Ia. P. Stradyn', "Rol' Pribaltiki v razvitii nauchnykh kontaktov mezhdu Rossiei i stranami severo-zapadnoi Evropy v XVIII-XX w.," in Valeskaln and Stradyn', eds., Nauchnye sviazi Pribaltiki v XVIII-XX vv. Materialy VII Pribaltiiskoi konferentsii po istorii nauki (Riga: Zinatne, 1968), pp. 4-6, 7-13. See also the writings of G. von Rauch, his pupils and colleagues. ,

81. Artem'ev, ZMNP, 176 (Nov. 1874), 49. 82. Shel'gunov, Popytki russkago soznaniia (1874), quoted by Grot, VIII, 60.


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