A Reconsideration of Eighteenth-Century Russia's Contributions to European Science

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1. Substantively and bibliographically, the more important Soviet studies include N. A. Figurovskii, ed. Istoriia estestvoznaniia v Rossi, 4 vols. (Moscow: Akademiia nauk SSSR, 1957); K. V. Ostrovitianov, ed., Istoriia Akademii nauk v trekh tomakh, 2 vols. (Moscow-Leningrad: Akademiia nauk SSSR, 1958-64); and the periodical Trudy instituta istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki (Moscow, 1954-present). 2. The two most recent Western studies of Russian science tend to perpetuate the image. A. Vucinich, Science in Russian Culture, Vol. I. (Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1963) is a massive work of importance, but accepts the traditional beliefs that Russian science was generally limited to the Academy of Sciences, that it was without suffi- ciently deep roots to withstand political pressures, and that it was largely derivative and descriptive. V. Boss, Newton and Russia: The Early Years (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1972) deals with a narrowly defined conception of Newton and his meaning to the eighteenth century, and shows that Russian scientists made contributions to West European science within that definition. Still, Boss seems to consider the Russian scientific community as a mere extension of Europe's, without general relevance to Russia; and he treats Russian research as though it had been defined exclusively by the issues of West European science.

3.Spisokdeistvitel'nykhchlenovAkademiinauk,1725-1925 (Leningrad: Akademiia nauk SSSR, 1925), pp. 5-13. 4. Russianization was of some importance, and tensions periodically emerged be- tween Russian and "German" or foreign members of the Academy; but the issue was not an overriding one. For example, when Academician V. F. Zuev began writing in Russian, Russian Academicians reprimanded him and instructed him to use Latin if he were unfamiliar with modern European languages: Protokoly zasedanii konferentsii imperator- skoi Akademii nauk, 4 vols. (St. Petersburg: Imp. Akademiia nauk, 1897), III, 546. And if Russian members showed occasional concern with maintaining the Academy's cosmopolitanism, Euler on more than one occasion showed concern with increasing the Russian component: Protokoly, III, 162; III, 622-25. The most prominent advocate of Russianization was Lomonosov, who got along cordially with Euler and Stahlin and showed marked contempt for Rumovskii and Sumarokov. Lomonosov's efforts to Russianize are described well but with exaggeration in E. S. Kuliabko, M. Y. Lomono- sov i uchebnaia deiatel'nost' peterburgskoi Akademii nauk (Moscow-Leningrad: Aka- demiia nauk SSSR, 1962), passim.

5. M. I. Sukhomlinov, Istoriia Rossiiskoi akademii, 8 vols. (St. Petersburg: Imp. Akademiia nauk, 1874-78), II, 172. Although seemingly low, the enrollment figures approximate the more generalized figures in F. L. Ford, Strasbourg in Transition, 1648- 1789 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1958), p. 168. 6. "Bernoulli," Dictionnaire historique et biographique de la Suisse, 8 vols: (Neu- chatel: V. Attinger, 1924), II, 132-33. 7. B. C. Shafer, Nationalism: Myth and Reality (New York: Harcourt, 1955), pp. 5ff, 131ff.; E. Cassirer, The Myth of the State (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1946), pp. 184ff. 8. S. Shevyrev, Istoriia imperatorskago moskovskago universiteta, 1755-1855 (Mos- cow: Izdatel'stvo Moskovskago universiteta, 1855), passim; N. A. Perrchko,Dokun2enty i materialy po istorii moskovskogo universiteta, 3 vols. [?] (Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Mos- kovskogo universiteta, 1962); D. I. Gordeev, Istoriia geologicheskikh nauk v moskov- skom universitete (Moscow: Izdatel'stvo. Moskovskogo universiteta, 1962), passim; A. M. Loranskii, "Istoricheskii ocherk' gornago instituta," in Nauchno-istoricheskii sbornik, izdanyi gornym institutom ko dniu stoletniago iubileia (St. Petersburg: Imp. Akademiia nauk, 1873), passim; G. G. Shorichenko, Stoletie voennago ministerstva, 1802-1902. Imperatorskaia voenno-meditsinskaia (mediko-khirurgicheskaia) adademiia (St. Petersburg: Sinodal'naia tipografiia, 1902), passim.

9. Petrov and Zagorskii eventually won election to the Academy, but only after years of service to the Medical Surgical Academy. Moiseenkov also won election but died almost immediately while working more for the Mining Institute than for the Academy of Sciences. Barsov, usually identified as a professor of rhetoric at Moscow University, actually began his career as a professor of mathematics. "Barsov," Russkii biograficheskii slovar' [hereafter RBS] 25 vols. (St. Petersburg: Tipografiia I. I. Skorokhodova, 1896- 1918), II, 514-16; Sukhomlinov, IV, 186-296; I. I. Shafranovskii and N. M. Rashin, Materialy F. P. Moiseenkova v arkhive Akademii nauk SSSR (Moscow: Akademiia nauk SSSR, 1955), p. 19; A. A. Eliseev, Vasilii Vladimirovich Petrov (Moscow-Leningrad: Akademiia nauk SSSR, 1949), passlm; B. B. Kudriatsev, Yasilii Vladimirovich Petrov, ego zhizn' i deiatel'nost' (Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo tekhniko-teoretiches- koi literatury, 1952), passim; M. A. Tikotin, P. A. Zagorskii i pervaia russkaia anatomi- cheskaia shkola (Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo medicheskoi literatury, 1950), passim. 10. P. Pekarskii, Nauka i literatura v Rossii pri Petre Velikom, 2 vols. (St. Petersburg: Imp. Akademiia nauk, 1862), I, 29. 11. Protokoly, II, 143, 272, 287; III, 92, 228-29, 399; IV, 603-05.

12. "Adodurov," RBS, I, 79-81. 13. "Teplov," in F. A. Brokgaus and I. A. Efron, Entsiklopedicheskii slovar', 41 vols. in 82 (St. Petersburg: Semenovskaia Tipo-Litografiia, 1890-1904), XXIV, 924. 14. "Karamyshev," RBS, VIII, 514-15; A. E. Labzina, Vospominaniia (St. Peters- burg: "Ogni," 1914), pp. l5ff.; E. G. Bobrov, Linnei: ego zhizn' i trudy (Moscow-Lenin- grad: Akademiia nauk SSSR, 1957), pp. 175-77. 15. Sukhomlinov, III, 2-65; M. M. Shtrange, Demokraticheskaia intelligentsiia Rossii v XVIII veke (Moscow: Nauka, 1965), pp. 37-39, 154-56. 16. S. K. Kotel'nikov, "Demonstratio seriei... ," Novi commentary, 10 (1762), 199-204. The title Memoires is used throughout this paper to refer to the Academy's chief scientific periodical, the name of which changed several times during the eighteenth century: Commentarii academiae scientiarum imperialis petropolitanae, 1726-82; Novi commentarii... , 1747-75; Acta academiae... , 1776-82;Nova acta... , [hereafterNA] ] 1782-1802.

17. Gordeev, pp. 15ff,; "Afonin," RBS, II, 358-59; Penchko, III, 230-32, 365, 401. 18. Penchko, III, 467. 19. Gordeev, p. 76ff. 20. For Sofronov, Svetov, and Golovin, see Kuliabko, pp. 191-200, 187-90, 144-45; for Kurganov, see Shtrange, pp. 92-98; V. V. Kuprianov, K. I. Shchepin-doktor medi- tsiny XVIII veka (Moscow: Medgiz, 1953), passim; Ia. Iu. Kogan, Prosvetitel' XVIII veka la. P. Kozel'skii (Moscow: Adademiia nauk SSSR, 1958), passim. 21. Shtrange, pp. 120, 81. Shtrange has uncovered a great deal of extremely valuable information about the activities of the "democratic intelligentsia"; but he has also

argued that the state leadership removed its members from the schools-as students and when possible, as teachers-in order to emasculate them politically. The argument is untenable partly because it assumes a conflict between the aspirations and objectives of the intelligentsia and those of the state; but there is little evidence to suggest such a schism at that time. It is also untenable insofar as it assumes that the state experienced a change of heart and decided that educated persons ought to serve the state. In point of fact, the chief intent of the state's educational policies had been to prepare persons for service, and the concept of service was broadly defined along came.ralist lines. 22. V. M. Severgin, "Slovo pokhval'no Mikhailu Vasil'evichu Lomonosovu," Sochi- neniia i perevody, izdavaemye imperatorskoiu rossiiskoiu akademieiu, 2 (1806), 104-05. 23. N. P. Sokolov, "Rech' o pol'ze khimii, govorenaia pri otkrytii publichnykh khimicheskikh lektsii 30 maia 1786," Novyia ezhemesiachnyia sochineniia, ch. 9 (Mart' 1787), p. 59. 24. S. P. Kraseninnikov, "Rech' o pol'ze nauk i khudozhestv," Torzhestvo Akademii nauk prazdnovanie sentiabria 6 dnia 1750 goda (St. Petersburg: Imp. Akademiia nauk, 1750), p. 84.

25. Sukhomlinov, 11, 4-9, 39-41. 26. Ibid, pp. 97-137. For the importance of classicism in the eighteenth century, see P. Gay, The Enlightenment: An Interpretation (New York: Random House, 1966), passim; for the importance of natural science in the eighteenth century, see E. Cassirer, The Philosophy of the Enlightenment, trans. F. C. A. Koellin and J. P. Pettegrove (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1951), passim; for the importance of both in eight- eenth-century Russia, see Shtrange, passim, espec. pp. 276-95. 27. Sukhomlinov, II, 70-71; A. N. Neustroev, Istoricheskoe rozyskanie o russkikh povremennykh izdaniiakh i sbornikakh (St. Petersburg: Tip. Tovarishchestvo "Obsh- chestvennaia pol'za," 1874), p. 403. 28. Sukhomlinov, II, 46, 80. 29.Ibid., pp. 80-87, 47. 30. "Rumovskii," RBS, XVII, 449. 31. Sukhomlinov, II, 375-76; Protokoly, III, 228-29; IV, 375-76. For the geography department, see F. A. Shibanov, "Liudi geograficheskogo departmenta kabineta Ekater- iny II," Vestnik Leningradskogo universiteta, Series of Geology and Geography (1966), pp. 108-14. 32. For the importance of the sons of soldiers in the formation of a modernizing scientific culture, see Kuliabko, passim and Shtrange, passim.

33. T. A. Lukina, Ivan Ivanovich Lepekhin (Moscow-Leningrad: Nauka, 1965), PP, 24-25, 43; N. G. Fradkin, Akademik I. L Lepekhin i ego puteshestviia po rossii v 1768-1773, 2nd. ed. (Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo geograficheskoi litera- tury, 1953), pp. 37ff. 34. I. I. Lepekhin, "Nova species menthae pescripta," NA, 11 (1783), 336-38: I. I. Lepekhin, "Alca camtschatica proposita," ibid., 12 (1794), 369-71. 35. Neustroev, pp. 402-25; P. N. Berkov, Istoriia russkoi zhurnalistiki XVIII veka (Moscow: Akademiia nauk SSSR, 1952), pp. 342-48. 36. Sukhomlinov, II, 280-95. 37. Protokoly, III, 460, 626; IV, 175, 197. 38. Euler's three-volume Pis'ma o raznykh fzicheskikh i filosoficheskikh materiiakh, pisannyia k nekotoroi nemetskoi printsesse went through four printings between 1768 and 1796, and his two-volume Rukovodstvo k arifmetike dlia upotrebleniia Gim/lazii pri Imp. Akademii nauk was twice published between 1740 and 1760; I. I. Kondakov, ed., Svodnyi katalog Russkoi knigi XVIII veka 1725-1800, 5 vols. (Moscow: Godu- darstvennaia biblioteka SSSR imeni V. I. Lenina and Kniga, 1963-67), III, 424-25. 39. Protokoly, III, 399 and IV, 596, 603.

40. Ibid., II, 451 and III, 228-29. 41. Ibid., III, 622-25. 42. Chappe d'Auteroche, A Journey into Siberia (London: T. Jefferys, 1770), p. 320 (The French original appeared in 1768).

43. R. K. Porter, Travelling Sketches in Russia and Sweden During the Years 1805, 1806, 1807, 1808 (Philadelphia: Hopkins and Earle, 1809), p. 109. 44. "Russia," Encyclopedia Britannica, 3rd. ed., 18 vols. (Edinburgh: A. Bell and C. Macfarquhar, 1797), XVI, 573. 45. W. Tooke, The Life of Catherine II, Empress of All the Russias, 2 vols. (Phila- delphia: William Fry, 1802), I, 316. 46. J. J. Barthelemy's Voyage du jeune Anacharsis en Gr�ce; de Maillet's Telliamed; Swift's Gulliver's Travels; and Voltaire's Zadig, as well as Candide, attest to the critical function and popular appeal of fictional accounts.

47. Buffon was the primary spokesman for the development of a natural history which granted full recognition to these kinds of factors and which avoided the abstract- ness characteristic of Linnaeus and other naturalists. G. Leclerc de Buffon, Histoire naturelle, generale et particuliere. Theorie de la terre (Paris, an. VII), "Premier dis- course," passim. 48. V. B. Sochava, "Tvorcheskii put' S. P. Krasheninnikova i znachenie ego epokhi dlia razvitiia botanicheskoi geografii v Rossii," Botanicheskii zhurnal, 60, No. 4 (1955), 613. 49. B. E. Raikov, Akademik Vasilii Zuev: ego zhizn' i trudy (Moscow-Leningrad: Akademiia nauk SSSR, 1955), pp. 181-84. Lukina, pp. 47-54; for an extended discussion of the reception of such literature in Germany, see G. Robel, "Die Sibirienexpeditionen und das deutsche Russlandbild im 18. Jahrhundert," in H. Ischreyt, ed., Wissenschafts- politik in Mittel- und Osteuropa (Berlin: Verlag Ulrich Camen, 1976), pp. 271-94. 50. F. N. Mil'kov, P. I. Rychkov: zhizn'igeograficheskie trudy (Moscow-Leningrad: Akademiia nauk SSSR, 1953), p. 35; "N. P. Rychkov," RBS, XVII, 709-10; I. S. Bak, "Dmitrii Alekseevich Golitsyn," Istoricheskie zapiski, 26 (1948), 259-60. 51. Tooke, II, 389-90.

52. Cited in A. Lipski, "The Foundations of the Russian Academy of Science," Isis, 44 (1953), 349. 53. C. Urness, A Naturalist in Russia: Letters from Peter Simon Pallas to Thomas Pennant (Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1967), p. 98. 54. Journal encyclopédique, 7 (1764), 16-17. 55. "Ozeretskovskii," RBS, XII, 183-84; Sukhomlinov, IV, 329-31; "Razumovskii," RBS, XV, 447. 56. C. Linnaeus,A General System ofNature, 7 vols., ed. and trans. W. Turton (Lon- don: Lacington, Allen and Co., 1806), I, 36 and 61, for example.

57. N. Gourlie, The Prince of Botanists, Carl Linnaeus (London: H. F. & G. Witherby, 1953), pp. 188, 252. 58. Bobrov, pp. 180-83; Gourlie, pp. 188-89. 59. Bobrov, pp. 175-78. 60. Linnaeus, IV, 78; V, 24, 288; VI, 939, for example. 61. Ibid., II, 223, 240, 266, 352, 371, 481, for example. 62. G. Leclerc de Buffon, Oeuvres completes de Buffon avec des extraits de Dauben- ton, 6 vols. (Paris: Garnier freres, 1858-64). See for example, I, 107, 150, 168, 185- 87; V, 69, 70, 72, 303; VI, 401, 422. 63. Ibid., I, 207, 470; VI, 186, 230, 276, are a few of the many examples. 64. Ibid., IV, 651, 664, 665, 666; VI, 447, 503, 522,,530, 569, 580, 599. 65. T. Pennant, History of Quadrupeds, 3rd. ed., 2 vols. (London: J. B. White, 1793), I, ix-x. 66.Ibid., I, 51, 111, 140, 251; II, 35, 83, 214, 267, 277, 279, 292, for example. 67.7&�.,I,253;II, 10,80, 100 68. C. F. Hildebrandt, Encyclopaedie der gesammten Chemie, 8 vols. (Erlangen: Hender, 1802-14), I, 169, 301, 383, 386, 460; 11, 712, 756, 894, 1225, are some few of the citations to Russian scientists.

69. I. I. Iskol'dskii, "Vitse-president berg-kolleggii Apollos Musin-Pushkin," Priroda, No. 3 (1948), pp. 77-80. Iskol'dskii's listing of Musin-Pushkin's publications is quite incomplete and should be supplemented by several articles including "Lettre de ... Mussin-Pushkin sur la purification du Phosphore et la decomposition de 1'Acide carbon- ique," Annales de chimie [hereafter AC] 25 (1798), 102-07, and "Extrait d'une lettre du Comte Mussin-Pushkin ... sur les sels et precipi6es de platine," ibid., 24 (1797), 205-15. 70. "Razumovskii," RBS, XV, 444-48; AC, 10 (1791), 207; 11 (1791), 197; 12 (1792), 61. 71. Bak, pp. 258-72; C. G. Kayser, Biieher-Lexicon, 14 vols. (Leipzig: Verlag von Ludwig Schumann, 1834), II, 297 ; British Museum, General Catalogue of Printed Books, 263 vols. (London: The Trustees of the British Museum, 1965), LXXXVIII, 393;AC, 44 (an. XII), 95-96. 72. Annales de chemie ou recueil de Memoires ccncernant la Chimie et les arts qui en dependant, 1 (1789), title page.

73.AC, 20 (1797), 390, 385, 389. 74. Fourcroy & Vauquelin, "Experiences sur la congelation de differens liquides par un froid artificiel... " ibid., 29 (an VII), 281-89; Guyten, "Expeiences sur les refroidissements artificiels," ibid., 29 (an. VII), 290-98; ibid., 6 (1790), 15-17; 14 (1792), 99. 75.Annalen derPhysik, 17 (1807), 34245. 76. Chemische Annalen. 29 (1808), 492- 490; 5 (1803), 15. 77. M. J. Girardin, Considerations g�n�rales sur les volcans (Rouen: Peron, 1831), p. 180; C. N. Ordinaire, Histoire naturelle des volcans (Paris: Levrault freres, 1802), pp. 104 ff., 215 ff. 78. G. Poullett-Scrope, Considerations on Volcanoes (London: W. Phillips, 1825), pp. 172, 188-89. 79. T. S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1962), pp. 23-65. 80. See, for example, I. I. Lepekhin, "Senecionis species nova descripta," NA, 11 (1793), 400-02; V. M. Severgin, "Lapidis cornei lamellosa," ibid., 9 (1791), 307-10; S. Rumovskii, "Commentatio de transitu Mercurii perdiscum solis,"ibid., I (1783), 376-88; P. Inokhodtsov, "Summarium observationum meteorologicarum in urbe Kam- yschin ad Wolgam," ibid., 12 (1794), 497-507.

81. M. Crossland, The Society of Arcueil (London: Heinemann, 1967), passim, is an exceptionally fine work which successfully treats the history of science in its cultural and social setting without minimizing its internal logic and history, as is also true of R. Schofield, The Lunar Society of Birmingham (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963), passim. 82. A. B. Granville, St. Petersburg, A Journal of Travels to and from that Capital, 2 vols. (London: H. Colburn, 1828), II, 105.


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