The Free Economic Society and the Nobility, 1765-96: Some Observations

in Canadian-American Slavic Studies
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The Free Economic Society and the Nobility, 1765-96: Some Observations

in Canadian-American Slavic Studies

References

1. N. L. Rubil1shtein,Sel'skoe khoziaistvo vo vtoroi polovine XVIII v. (Moscow: Gos. izd-vo polit. lit-ry, 1957), p. 144. 2. K. V. Sivkov, "Novye iavleniia v tekhnike i organizatsii sel'skogo khoziaistva Rossii vo vtoroi polovine XVIII v.," Ezhegodnik po agrarnoi istorii Vostochnoi Evropy 1959 g. (Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Akademii nauk SSSR, 1961), p. 154. 3. Michael Confino, Domaines et seigneurs en Russie vers la fin du XVII le si�cle (Paris: Institut d'etudes slaves de l'Universit6 de Paris, 1963), and Systemes agraires et progres agricole. L assolement triennal en Russie aux XVIlf-XIX6 siecles (Paris: Mouton, 1969). 4. See Tables 1-4; aside from the regular members (deistvifel'nye chleny)1 under con- sideration here, the Society was also composed of correspondents (korrespondenty) and auditors (auskyl'tanty). For regular foreign members, see fn. 10. 5. A. I. Khodnev, Istoriia Imperatorskago vol'nago ekonomicheskago obshchestva s 1765 do 1865 goda (St. Petersburg: Tip. T-va "Obshchestvennaia pol'za," 1865); V. I. Semevskii, Krest'ianskii vopros v Rossii v XVIII i pervoi polovine XIX veka, 2 vols. (St. Petersburg: Tip. T-va "Obshchestvennaia pol'za," 1888), I, 45-56.

6. See P. Miliukov, 'Fiziokraty v Rossii,' in "Fiziokraty," Brockhaus-Efron, Entsiklo- pedicheskii slovar', 86 vols. (St. Petersburg: Brokgauz-Efron, 1896-1913), XXXV, 694-95. 7. "Ustav Vol'nago Ekonomicheskago Obshchestva," Trudy Vol'nago Ekonomiches- kago Obshchestva [hereafter TVEO] , 1 (1765). The Trudy volumes cited here are located in the Library of Congress. 8. A. T. Bolotov, Zhizn' i prikliucheniia Andreia Bolotova, 4 vols., Prilozhenie k Russkoi starine (St. Petersburg: Pechatnia V. I. Golovina and Tip. V. S. Balasheva, 1870-73), II, 632. 9.Ibid., III, 545, 584; IV, 555. 10. In Scotland (1723), Ireland (1730s), Switzerland (1747), England (1753), France (1757, in Rennes; 1761, Paris) Germany (1762, in Thuringen; 1763, Leipzig and Zelle); Austria (1767), Denmark (1769), Prussia (1770). Of the 117 foreign members admitted, most came from Germany (over 40), followed by England, Sweden, Switzerland, France, Italy, Denmark, Holland, Austria, and Scotland. There were also members from Surinam (3), Mexico (1), India (1), the East Indies (1), and the United States (John Heckewelder from Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, admitted in 1794). Prominent foreigners included Louis- Francois Graslin (admitted in 1768), Arthur Young (1779), William Coxe (1789), John Sinclair (1792-93), Angelo Fabroni (1793), Felice Fontana (1793), William Jones (1794- 95). Although some foreign members had articles published in the Trudy, their role ap- pears to have been mostly honorary.

11. For more details, see Marc Raeff, Origins of the Russian Intelligentsia: The Eigh- teenth-Century Nobility (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1966), espec. pp. 115-16. 12. T[imofei] f[on] K [lingstaedt], "Preduvedomlenie," TVEO, 1 (1765), VII-VIII. 13. The Society numbered over forty professors, academicians, doctors, and ad'iunkty among its members. 14. Bolotov, II, 1049. 15. f[on] K[lingstaedt] , "Preduvedomlenie," p. V. For the importance of service in noblemen's lives, see Raeff, loc. cit. 16. "Kratkaia biografiia Andreia T. Bolotova, sochinenaia samim im, dlia pomesh- cheniia v istoricheskoi slovar' sochinenyi Pskovskim Episkopom Evgeniem," Institut russkoi literatury (Pushkinskii dom), f. 537, ed. khr. 22, p. 9.

17. See the "Ustav" cited in fn. 7 and "Ustav Vol'nago Ekonomicheskago Obshches- tva ... 1770 goda," TVEO, 17 (1771), 190-213. 18. TVEO, 41 (1790), 227. 19. John H. Brown, "The Publication and Distribution of the Trudy of the Free Eco- nomic Society, 1765-1796," The Russian Review, 36 (July 1977), 349. 20. TVEO, 17 (1771), 194. 21. From Ekaterinoslav (especially), Astrakhan', Tsaritsyn, Nerchinsk, Tobol'sk, Tver', Okhotsk, Polotsk, Vologda, Voronezh, Ustiug, Kaluga, Kiev, Kiakhta, Sarepa, and Mogilev. 22. Bolotov, IV, 905.

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