M. L. Mikhailov and the Emergence of the Woman Question in Russia

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1. This translation may raise some eyebrows. Vopros means both problem and question (in the sense of issue); Zhenskii is an adjective and woman is a noun. But consider the alternative translations: "female problem" (or ques- tion); "woman's (or women's) problem", etc.; all will drag in associations un- connected with the public issue "woman question". For precedent I cite Theo- dore Stanton, ed., The woman question in Europe (New York, 1884); Knud Wieth-Knudsen, Feminism: a sociological study of the woman question (Lon- don, 1928). Many more could be listed. j

2. There is, to my knowledge, no serious study in any language of the woman question in nineteenth century Russia. The material in this article has been adapted from the author's doctoral dissertation, "The question of the emancipation of women in nineteenth century Russia," Harvard University, 1967. For an introduction to the literature of this period see: "Ukazatel' liter- atury zhenskago voprosa na russkom iazyke," Severnyi vestnik (July 1887), pp. 1-32 and (August 1887), pp. 33-35, which contains some 2,000 items; Elena Likhacheva, Materialy dlia istorii zhenskago obrazovaniia v Rossii, 2 vols. (St. Petersburg, 1890-93); S. S. Shashkov, Ocherk istorii russkoi zhenshchiny (St. Petersburg, 1872). 3. Dead Souls, trans. by Andrew MacAndrew (New York, 1961), p. 33. In support of this assessment, see the following memoirs by graduates of Institutes: Russkaia beseda, 3 (1859), pp. 21-50; Epokha (October 1864), pp. 1-40; Se- vernyi vestnik (March 1886), pp. 94-129. For a brief general account, see V. Ovtsyn, Razvitie zhenskago obrazovaniia (St. Petersburg, 1887).

4.Zhenskoepravo (St. Petersburg, 1873), p. 110. 5. A. D. Sposobin, 0 razvode v Rossii (Moscow, 1881), pp. 18-62 and passim. 6. On the brief influence and decline of Zhorzhzandizm, see K. Skalkovskii, "Zhorzh Zand," Razsvet, XI (1861), 353-80; A. Veselovskii, Zapadnoe vliianie v novoi russkoi literature, 5th ed. (Moscow, 1916), pp. 225 ff; Shashkov, So- branie sochinenii, 2 vols. (St. Petersburg, 1898), I, 849-50. 7. V. G. Belinskii, Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, 13 vols. (Moscow, 1953-59), V, 175-76 and VII, 649; A. I. Gertsen, Sochineniia, 9 vols. (Moscow, 1955-58), IV, 164; and the excellent chapter "Realism in love: George Sand" in Martin Malia, Alexander Herzen and the Birth of Russian Socialism, 1812-1855 (Cam- bridge, Mass., 1961).

8. "Voprosy zhizni," in Pirogov, Sochineniia, 2nd. ed., 2 vols. (St. Peters- burg, 1900), I, 1-44. 9. These articles are too numerous to cite here. See Likhacheva, Materialy, II, 17, 456-67. 10. N. A. Konstantinov, Ocherki po istorii srednei shkoly (Moscow, 1947), pp. 16-25; S. Ashevskii, "Russkoe studenchestvo v epokhu shestidesiatykh godov ( 1855-1863)," Sovremennyi mir (August 1917), pp. 19-36. 11. M. N. Vernadskaia, Sobranie sochineniia (St. Petersburg, 1862), pp. 71- 146 (quotation, p. 115), a series of articles reprinted from Ekonomicheskii uka- zatel' (1858-60). 12. Razsvet, published monthly in St. Petersburg, 1859-1862.

13. Pisarev took the job as reviewer for Razsvet because he needed the money and because the journal was not too offensive to him: "sugary but all right", as he put it. Sochineniia, 6 vols. (St. Petersburg, 1894), II, 175-76. 14. M. A. Skabichevskii, Literaturnye vospominaniia (Moscow, 1928), p. 174. 15. Pages choisies, ed. by H. Chabot, 2 vols. (Paris, 1935), I, 67. 16. Oeuvres completes, edition definitive, 40 vols. (Paris, 1893-99), XXXIV (77amour).

17.Ibid., pp. 32-33, 44. 18. Ibid., pp. 32-33. 19. Ibid., pp. 18, 334-35. 20. Oeuvres completes, ed. by C. Bougl6, 12 vols. (Paris, 1923-46), VIII, 4 (La justice)

21.Ibid., pp. 183-85. 22. Ibid., p. 197. 23. Ibid., pp. 47, 201-15. � 24. Liudmila Petrovna Shelgunova, Iz dalekago proshlago (St. Petersburg, 11 1;1 1901), pp. 69-71. Shelgunova and her husband, N. V. Selgunov, had met d'H6ricourt in Paris the previous year.

25. Translated as A woman's philosophy of woman (New York, 1864). 26. Ibid., p. 17. 27. Muzhchina i zhenshchina vroz i vmeste v razlichyia epokhi ikh zhizni (St. Petersburg, 1859), pp. 84-88, 92. I have not been able to establish the authorship of this work. From its tone, however, I would guess it was written either by a priest or by a conservative, but not very intelligent, publicist of `'slavophile" sympathies. 28. "Frantsuzskie zhurnaly, knigi, i broshiury," Otechestvennye zapiski, CXII (May 1857), separate pagination.

29. "Zhenshchina i liubov po poniatiiam G. Mishle," Russkii vestnik, XXI (June 1859), 461-500. 30. Vladimir Vasilevich Stasov, Nadezhda Vasilevna Stasova: vospominaniia i ocherki (St. Petersburg, 1899), p. 198. 31. "Ratsional'noe zhenskoe vospitanie: pis'mo k nastavnitse," Razsvet, XII (December 1861), 333-56. 32. M. L. Mikhailov, Sochineniia, ed. by B. P. Koz'min et al., 3 vols. (Mos- cow, 1958), I, 5-47, biographical sketch by M. Dikman and Iu. Levin. 33. Elena Shtakenshneider, Dnevnik i zapiski (Moscow, 1934), p. 213; Avdo- tia Iakovlevna Panaeva, Vospominaniia, ed. by K. Chukovskii (Moscow, 1956), p. 197. 34. Nikolai Vasilevich Shelgunov, Sochineniia, 3 vols., 3rd ed. (St. Peters- burg, 1904), II, 637.

35. Tat'iana Bogdanovicha, Liubov liudei shestidesiatykh godov (Leningrad, 1929), p. 337; Mikhailov, Sochineniia, III, 678. 36. All were published in Sovremennik, except for the Berlin letters which are collected in M. L. Mikhailov, Zhenshchiny: ikh vospitanie i znachenie v sem'e i obshchestve (St. Petersburg, 1903). I have used this for "Paris Letter Number Five" (omitted from Sochineniia) and Sochineniia.

37.Sochineniia, III, 369-71; Zhenshchiny, pp. 223-42. 38. Sochineniia, III, 371-72. 39. Ibid., pp. 372-73; Zhenshchiny, pp. 232-42.

40.Sochineniia, III, 377-79; Zhenshchiny, pp. 225, 234. 41. This was volume III of his Die Natvrgeschichte des Volkes als Grundlage einer deutschen Sozial-Politik, 4 vols. (Stuttgart, 1851-64). Riehl (1823-97) was what the Germans call a Kulturhistoriker. 42. Sochineniia, III, 380-81. 43. Ibid., pp. 376, 381-82. The use of the slave-slaveowner analogy was popular among profeminists all over the western world in these years. See, for instance, the passage from Fanny Lewald quoted in Die Geschichte der Frauenbewegung in den Kulturlandern, ed. by Helene Lange and Gertrud Baumer [Handbuch der Frauenbewegung, 7] (Berlin, 1901), p. 42. 44. Sochineniia, III, 382-86.

45.Ibid., pp. 386-92; Zhenshchiny, pp. 229-30. 46. Sochineniia, III, 392-97; Zhenshchiny, pp. 229-30.

47. Sochineniia, III, 397-407. 48. Ibid., pp. 374, 386, 415-25; Zhenshchiny, pp. 232-42. b-

49.Sochineniia, III, 293 (from "Paris Letter Number Six"), 371-72, 395, 429-30; Zhenshchiny, pp. 237-42. 50. Sochineniia, III, 428-29; Zhenshchiny, pp. 242-45. 51. "Zhenshchiny v universitete," Sovremennik (April 1861), reprinted in Zhenshchiny, pp. 73-83; "Uvazhenie k zhenshchinam," ibid. (February 1866), reprinted in Zhenshchiny, pp. 120-221. -A

52.Zhenshchiny, p. 80. 53. In Russian law, women landowners were allowed to proxy their vote in local elections. 54. Reprinted in Dissertations and discussions, 4 vols. (Boston, 1865-68), III, 93-101. 55. "Dzhon Stiuart Mill: Ob emantsipatsii zhenshchin," trans. with a preface and afterward by Mikhailov, Sovremennik, LXXXIV (November 1860), 221-50. fe^.

56. See Michael St. John Packe,, The Lite of John Stuart Mill (London, 1954) pp. 63, 87-90, 124, 137-38, 313, 370 on Mill and his wife on the woman question. 57. "Parizhskie pis'ma," Razsvet, IV (November 1859), 48-53. 58. T. Shishkov in ibid., VII (1860), 11-19.

59.Ibid., IX (1860), 1-15. 60. Otechestvennye zapiski, XXIII (April 1861), 143. 61. Sachineniia, III, 601 (Zapiski). 62. Mikhail Lemke, Politicheskie protsessy v Rossii v 1860-kh gg. (Moscow, 1923), p. 144. 63. Actually some of the longer articles were serialized so that Mikhailov's writings about women appeared in some eight different numbers of Sovremennik. 126-

64. N. G. Chernyshevskii, Chto delat'? (Moscow, 1963), passim. See espe- cially the dialogue between Vera Pavlovna and Kirsanov on p. 370.

65. S. S. Shaskov, Istoricheskiia sud'by zenshchiny: detoubiistvo i prosti- tutsiia (St. Petersburg, 1871), pp. 337-40, reprinted from Delo (September- December 1869). 66. E. S. Vilenskaia, Revoliutsiorenoe podpol'e v Rossii (60-e gody XIX v.) (Moscow, 1965), pp. 269-82. 67. I. E. Deniker, "Vospominaniia I. E. Denikera," Katorga i ssylka, 3 (1924), pp. 20-44 (p. 27). 68. In Chto Delat'? 69. Sochineniia, I, 15. 70. "K molodomu pokoleniiu," in N. V. Shelgunov, L. P. Shelgunova, M. L. Mikhailov, Vospominareiia, 2 vols. (Moscow, 1967), I, 332-50.

71. Cf. Kollontai's definition of marriage under communism: "a comradely and warm union of two free and independent, laboring, equal members of communist society." Sem'ia i kommunisticheskoe gosudarstvo (Moscow-Petrograd, 1918), p. 21. 72. Sochineniia, III, 439-40. 73. Zhenshchiny, p. 221. � 74. Zhenshchiny, p. 221. 75. Vladimir Burtsev, Za sto let (1800-1896) (London, 1897), p. 43. 76. This, at least, is how Kollontai was interpreted by many of her followers in these turbulent years. A study of all of her writings would show that she was widely misunderstood. 77. See particularly Lenin's comments in his famous interview with Clara Zetkin reprinted in V. I. Lenin, On the emancipation of women (Moscow, n.d.), pp. 91-119.

78.Zhenshchiny, pp. 73-75.


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