The Livonian War (1558-1583) was responsible for many innovations in Russian warfare. For the first time Russian troops conquered a European state which had a higher level of development than Muscovy. Russian nobles built their own world in Russian Livonia, and for the first time Russian troops were evacuated from another country after a long period of time. All these factors influenced the mentality of the Russian nobles. Nevertheless, the sources demonstrate something quite different, that the Livonian War did not change the mentality of the Muscovite nobles or their attitude toward service. That service was considered fairly routine and was regarded as familiar everyday military labor. In this respect, contemporaries did not separate the Livonian War from an endless succession of wars that shook Russia in the sixteenth century. Apart from the tsar’s early childhood, there were only three more or less peaceful years between 1547 and 1584; during the rest of Tsar Ivan IV’s reign, service people certainly could not complain about the lack of opportunities for military service. The Livonian War hardly impressed the Russian nobles or influenced their outlook on life.
Michael Krom“Private Service and Patronage in Sixteenth-Century Russia” in Russian History35 (2008) 309-20; Idem “Formen der Patronage im Russland des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts: Perspektiven der vergleichenden Forschung im europäischen Kontext” in Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas 57 (2009): 321-45.
John L. I. FennellThe Correspondence between Prince A. M. Kurbsky and Tsar Ivan IV of Russia 1564-1579 (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press1963); Василий В. Калугин Андрей Курбский и Иван Грозный: Теоретические взгляды и литературная техника древнерусского писателя (Москва: Языки русской культуры 1998); Константин Ю. Ерусалимский Сборник Курбского 1: Исследование книжной культуры (Москва: Знак 2009).
[Between January 18 and 291578. I. D. Plescheev Prince M. V. Tyufyakin and clerk Nechay Perfilyev Yuriev voivodes’ formal reply to the town military command on availability of weapons in the towns and communicating with Yuriev subordinate towns on this] в Памятники истории Восточной Европы (далее ПИВЕ) 3: Подлинное делопроизводство приказов и воевод 1571-1580 (Москва Варшава: Археографический центр 1998) с. 102. Document Nr. 30.
[September 301578. Reminder from the Central military and service institution (Razryadny Prikaz) to the local military institution (Pomestny Prikaz) and the Boyar Duma resolution to raise the remuneration for B. D. Uvarov] в ПИВЕ 3 124. Document Nr. 49.
[No later than November 291578. A petition by B. S. Khvostov about providing him with a manor in Apselskiy region which belonged to D. B. Velyashev transferred to Kolover] в ПИВЕ 3 143. Document Nr. 56.I; [No later than December 20 1578. A petition by B. D. Uvarov about allocating a manor in Kolover region of K. O. Likharev lands] в ПИВЕ 3 147. Document Nr. 56.V.
[November 81578. A letter from the Central military institution (Razryadny Prikaz) to Pernov voivodes Prince M. Y. Lykov P. E. Kutuzov and clerk Vasiliy Alekseev on raising the remuneration for V. Dobrynin and providing him with a land allotment] в ПИВЕ 3 135. Document Nr. 54.II.
John L. I. FennellThe Correspondence between Prince A. M. Kurbsky and Tsar Ivan IV pp. 5-6.
[January 111578. A formal letter of Kukonoy voivodes from allocation S. Puschin and S. Golovin to the Central military institution (Razryadny Prikaz) on availability of military and bread supplies and on their relations with the town voivode and nobles] в ПИВЕ 3 100. Document Nr. 28.
[September 11580. Letter from the Central military institution (Razryadny Prikaz) to Velikolutsk voivode Prince F. I. Lykov in Velikie Luki with an order to defend the town] в ПИВЕ 3 229. Document Nr. 24.
[January 81578. List of all the necessary town of Rizitsa fortification repairs made by voivode V. Y. Bulgakov and companions] в ПИВЕ 3 59. Document Nr. 4.
[Before January 191578. A formal letter of Kukonoy voivodes Princes I. S. Turenin and S. I. Korkodinov on sending service people from Pskov and on Pskov voivodes’ refusal to send builders for church construction and lack of blacksmiths and masons] в ПИВЕ 3 62-63. Document Nr. 7.
[January 101578. Letter to Fellin voivodes Ivan Saburov and Ivan Volynskiy on safety measures concerning the possible seize of Fellin by Livonian Germans] в Дополнения к актам историческим (далее ДАИ) 1 (Санкт-Петербург: Типография II Отделения Собственной Его Императорского Величества Канцелярии 1846) с. 176. Document Nr. 121.
[August 151580. Letter from the Central military institution (Razryadny Prikaz) to voivode Prince V. D Khilkov on search punishment and exile of deserters from Kolomna] в ПИВЕ 3 218. Document Nr. 12; [December 1578. Order reminder to Mikhail Vnukov and a letter to knyaz Vasili Rostovsky on gathering boyar sons in Votskaya pyatina and sending them to serve in Pskov] в ДАИ 1 180. Document Nr. 124
[No earlier than December 221577. A formal letter of Vladimirets voivodes Princes N. B. Priimkov-Rostovtsev and V. P. Golovin to Razriadny Prikaz on preparation of Lithuanian and Livonian army campaign the delay of sending boyar sons the deserters to service and sending clergymen and service people from Pskov] в ПИВЕ 3 57–58. Document Nr. 2.
[Between January 17 and 211578. A formal letter of Krutsborg voivode Prince M. M. Putyatin to Gorodovoy Prikaz requesting cannons clergymen and service people from Pskov on impossibility of building barns and a church through lack of recruits lack of food supplies] в ПИВЕ 3 61. Document Nr. 6.
[January 101578. Letter from Pomestniy Prikaz to Pernov voivodes Prince F. M. Lobanov-Rostovskiy P. E. Kutuzov and the priest Vasiliy Alekseev ordering to conquer and bring to administer an oath the population of farmsteads villages and hamlets of Pernov neigbouring areas by Karkus and Ruen landlords] в ПИВЕ 3 60. Document Nr. 5.
[After January 11578. A petition of Kukonoy voivode from allocation S. Golovin complaining about the threats from Pustorzhevsk landowners the Karamyshevs] в ПИВЕ 3 58. Document Nr. 3.
[January 211578. Letter from Gorodovoy Prikaz to Rezitsa voivodes Prince P. S. Lobanov-Rostovskiy and D. G. Rzhevskiy requesting to stop the improprieties] в ПИВЕ 3 65-67. Document Nr. 10.
[After July 101571. Letter of Polotsk voivode Prince A. I. Nogtev-Suzdalskiy to the Chancellor of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Prince N. Y. Radzivill Ryzhiy on border conflicts] в ПИВЕ 3 23 26. Document Nr. 1.
[April 281526. Deed of purchase of Mitropolich boyar R. F. Fomin of the village of Staroe Yelsufyevo in Manatyin stan Muscovite region sold to metropolitan Daniil by P. E. Danilov] в Акты феодального землевладения и хозяйства ХIV-ХVI веков (далее АФЗХ) 1 (Москва: Издательство Академии Наук СССР 1951) с. 70. Document Nr. 61; 1525-1526. [Deed of purchase of Mitropolich boyar R. F. Fomin for the third part of the village of Golovinskaia in Manatyin stan Muscovite region sold to metropolitan Daniil by I. G. Yeldygin] в АФЗХ 1 70-71. Document Nr. 62; [July 22 1526. Deed of purchase of Mitropolich boyar R. F. Fomin of the village of Zhabinskaya in Bykov stan Muscovite region sold to metropolitan Daniil by M. S. Yeldegin widow Fedosia and her sons] в АФЗХ 1 72. Document Nr. 64.
[After July 101571. “List of Harms” attached to the letter by Prince A. I. Nogtev-Suzdalskiy containing all the harm done by Lithuanian attacks on the Polotsk border] в ПИВЕ 3 31. Document Nr. 2.
[After July 101571. A letter of Polotsk voivode Prince A. I. Nogtev-Suzdalskiy to the Chancellor of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Prince N.Y. Radzivill Ryzhiy on border conflicts] в ПИВЕ 3 24. Document Nr. 1.
[After July 101571. “List of Harms” attached to the letter by Prince A. I. Nogtev-Suzdalskiy containing all the harms done by Lithuanian attacks on the Polotsk border] в ПИВЕ 3 27 31. Document Nr. 2.
[After July 101571. “List of Harms” attached to the letter by Prince A. I. Nogtev-Suzdalskiy containing all the harms done by Lithuanian attacks on the Polotsk border] в ПИВЕ 3 30 31 39. Document Nr. 2.
[After July 101571. A letter of Polotsk voivode Prince A. I. Nogtev-Suzdalskiy to the Chancellor of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Prince N. Y. Radzivill Ryzhiy on border conflicts] в ПИВЕ 3 26. Document Nr. 1.
Alexander FiljushkinIvan the Terrible: A Military History (London: Frontline Books2008) p. 4.