Muscovite Ritual in the Context of Jerusalem Old and New

in Canadian-American Slavic Studies
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The reign of Grand Prince Ivan III (1462–1505) represented a period of wide-ranging consolidation of Rusian lands under the aegis of Moscow at the very time that elites were concerned about the Orthodox Christian prediction of an imminent Apocalypse in 1492. The semiotics of Muscovite rulership incorporated references to Jerusalem and the End Times long after the predicted date had passed. The present study analyzes the elements and relationships employed in iconography, architecture, and ritual to reevaluate the capital in light of Jerusalem old and new.

References

1

R.G. Skrynnikov, Tragediia Novgoroda (Moscow: Izd. im. Sabashnikovykh, 1994), pp. 10–44; idem, Tretii Rim (St. Petersburg: Dmitrii Bulanin, 1994), pp. 31–65; idem, Ivan III (Moscow: Tranzitkniga, 2006), pp. 272–277; Michael S. Flier, “Till the End of Time: The Apocalypse in Russian Historical Experience before 1500,” Orthodox Russia: Belief and Practice under the Tsars, ed. Valerie A. Kivelson and Robert H. Greene (University Park: Pennsylvania State Univ. Press, 2003), pp. 152–158; Andrei Batalov, “O traditsii stroitel’stva Uspenskikh khramov v Moskovskoi Rusi XVI v.” Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo. Russkoe iskusstvo pozdnego srednevekov’ia. Shestnadtsatyi vek, ed. Andrei Batalov et al. (St. Petersburg: Dmitrii Bulanin, 2003), pp. 38–43; idem and Leonid Beliaev, Sakral’noe prostranstvo srednevekovoj Moskvy (Moscow: Dizain. Informatsiia. Kartografiia, 2010), pp. 295–329.

2

Daniel Rowland, “Moscow – the Third Rome or the New Israel?” Russian Review 55 (1996): 602–603; Michael S. Flier, “K semioticheskomu analizu Zolotoi palaty Moskovskogo Kremlia,” Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo. Russkoe iskusstvo pozdnego Srednevekov’ia. Shestnadtsatyi vek, ed. Andrei Batalov et al. (St. Petersburg: Dmitrii Bulanin, 2003), pp. 178–187.

4

Michael S. Flier, “The Iconology of Royal Ritual in Sixteenth-Century Muscovy,” Byzantine Studies: Essays on the Slavic World and the Eleventh Century, ed. Speros Vryonis, Jr. (New York: Aristide D. Caratzas, Publisher, 1992), pp. 53–76; and idem, “Breaking the Code: The Image of the Tsar in the Muscovite Palm Sunday Ritual,” Medieval Russian Culture, II, ed. Michael S. Flier and Daniel Rowland. California Slavic Studies, vol. 19. (Berkeley-Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press, 1994): 213–242.

6

Ibid., pp. 343–344. Cf. Golubtsov, “Chinovniki,” pp. 103–108, 250–253; Nikol’skii, O sluzhbakh, pp. 45–97.

9

See references in Michael S. Flier, “Filling in the Blanks: The Church of the Intercession and the Architectonics of Medieval Muscovite Ritual,” Harvard Ukrainian Studies 19 (1995): 120–139.

12

Michael S. Flier, “Court Ceremony in an Age of Reform: Patriarch Nikon and the Palm Sunday Ritual,” Religion and Culture in Early Modern Russia and Ukraine, ed. Samuel H. Baron and Nancy Shields Kollmann (DeKalb: Northern Illinois Univ. Press, 1997), pp. 76–79.

13

Ernst H. Kantorowicz, “The ‘King’s Advent’ and the Enigmatic Panels in the Doors of Santa Sabina,” Art Bulletin 26, no. 4 (1944): 207–231.

14

Ibid., pp. 212–217.

15

Ibid., pp. 217–218.

16

Ibid., p. 229.

18

Flier, “Court Ceremony,” pp. 80–82.

19

Hakluyt, Principall Navigations, p. 341.

Figures

  • Figure 1

    Cathedral Square 16–17th centuries, Moscow Kremlin, Moscow. Adapted from reconstruction by L.N. Kulaga.

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  • Figure 2

    The Epiphany ritual in Moscow. 6 January 1662. Held on the frozen Moscow River near the Tainik Tower of the Kremlin. Engraving from F. Adelung, Al’bom Meierberga: Vidy i bytovye kartiny Rossii XVII veka (St. Petersburg, 1903), pl. 56. Detail.

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  • Figure 3

    The Palm Sunday ritual in Moscow. 10 April 1636. Engraving from Adam Olearius, Vermehrte Newe Beschreibung der Muscowitischen und Persichen Reise (Schleswig, 1656), pl. 132a. Detail.

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  • Figure 4

    Barma and Postnik, Church of the Intercession on the Moat, Red Square, Moscow. 1555–61. Northeastern elevation and plan.

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  • Figure 5a

    The Palm Sunday ritual in Moscow. 23 March 1662. Engraving from F. Adelung, Al’bom Meierberga: Vidy i bytovye kartiny Rossii XVII veka (St. Petersburg, 1903), pl. 73.

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  • Figure 5b

    The Palm Sunday ritual in Moscow. 23 March 1662. Engraving from F. Adelung, Al’bom Meierberga: Vidy i bytovye kartiny Rossii XVII veka (St. Petersburg, 1903), pl. 73. Detail of disguised horse (no. 8) and tree (no. 11).

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  • Figure 6

    The Apocalypse: The righteous Judge Cometh. Cathedral of the Annunciation, Moscow Kremlin. Fresco on the southern vault under the choir gallery. 1547–1551.

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  • Figure 7

    Entry into Jerusalem. Icon. Novgorod. End 15th-beg. 16th century.

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