The Treaty of Stolbovo (1617) was only the first step in making peace between Sweden and Muscovy at the end of the Time of Troubles. The delimitation process ended only in August 1621. This article describes the circumstances of the first stage of delimitation in Ingria in 1617–1618 that occurred at the same time that the “Lithuanian” menace directly threatened Moscow itself. Old residents, mostly local peasants, supported both the Swedish and Russian delimitation commissions. The result of that delimitation was a clear and transparent borderline that existed for more than eighty years.