Hutsul Art or “Hutsul Art”?

Ukrainians, Poles, and the “Discovery” of the Hutsul Kilim in the Interwar Period

In: Canadian-American Slavic Studies
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  • 1 University of Vienna

This article is concerned with the fate of the Hutsul kilim and, by extension, Polish-Ukrainian relations in the interwar period. This was a period when the Hutsul highlanders of the Eastern Carpathians (today citizens of modern Ukraine), the traditional weavers of these geometrically-patterned woolen rugs, found themselves within the newly established Second Polish Republic. Most commercial weaving was in Jewish hands at this time, and this production was far inferior to that done by Hutsuls themselves, primarily for their own domestic use. The decline of the Hutsul kilim was arrested by a Ukrainian émigré from Soviet Russia, whose “Hutsul Art” collective reinvigorated the form. This development brought the Hutsul kilim to the attention of those who would wish to appropriate it, or at a minimum consider it part and parcel of interwar Poland’s artistic production. The article demonstrates that, while Ukrainians were keen on integrating the Hutsul kilim into the Ukrainian kilim tradition, Poles preferred to keep the Hutsul kilim distinct, thus allowing it to be seen as part of the heritage of the multiethnic interwar Polish state.

  • 4

    Marin Constantin, “Artisanship and Ethnicity in the 2000s Romania [sic],” Canadian-American Slavic Studies 45, no. 1 (2011): 1–35, quotation at p. 2.

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  • 6

    Karolczak, Dzieduszyccy, pp. 108–110. Further information on Dzieduszycki’s contributions to the study of Hutsul ethnography can be gleaned from Marian Tyrowicz, “Dzieduszycki, Włodzimierz,” Polski Słownik Biograficzny, 6:124–126.

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  • 15

    On weaving for cash, see Eber, “ ‘That They Be in the Middle, Lord’,” pp. 45–63, esp. p. 48.

  • 16

    Volodymyr Hnatiuk, “ ‘Hutsul’s’ke Mystetstvo’ v Kosovi,” Dilo, 21 April 1923.

  • 18

    Hnatiuk, “ ‘Hutsul’s’ke Mystetstvo’ v Kosovi,” Dilo, 21 April 1923.

  • 32

    TsDIAL 869/1/67: 17–18; L.Ja., “Vidrodzhennia ukraïns’koho kylymarstva: Mystetstvo ta joho vystavka,” Novyi Chas, ch. 29, 1930.

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  • 42

    Mykola Holubets’, “Vystavka ukrains’koho kylymu,” Dilo, 14 March 1930. Pelypeiko, “Kylymars’kyi promysel,” notes that Kul’chyts’ka is an artist from Lviv. The gender aspect of the weaving and design is interesting, as traditionally women had been the weavers.

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  • 43

    On weaving and changing roles, see Eber, “ ‘That They Be in the Middle, Lord’,” pp. 54–59.

  • 45

    Ibid., p. 16.

  • 56

    Ibid., p. 5.

  • 57

    B., “Wystawa ‘Sztuka Huculska’,” Lwowski Kurjer Poranny, 16 March 1930.

  • 67

    See (K.), “Kilka slow o kilimach,” Wiadomości Turystyczne 1936 nr 10.

  • 68

    B., “Wystawa ‘Sztuka Huculska’,” Lwowski Kurjer Poranny, 16 March 1930.

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