The Imprint of the Imprints: Sojourners, Xiaoshuo Translations, and the Transcultural Canon of Early Chinese Fiction in Europe, 1697-1826

in East Asian Publishing and Society
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

This paper posits that the circulation of the earliest items of Chinese fiction in early modern Europe was indebted to the popularity of certain titles within the Qing-dynasty book market on the one hand and to the participation of educated Chinese in the process of purchase, selection, and translation on the other. It further argues that European translations deployed specific features of Chinese imprints in order to differentiate translations from the hugely popular pseudo-Chinese transcreations, thereby seeking to establish textual authority for a philologically grounded Chinese voice. The paper terms this convergence of conceptual, material, and social factors in producing transculturally mediated texts “biblioglossia,” in order to capture aspects of textuality neglected or obscured in standard discussions of “orientalism.”

The Imprint of the Imprints: Sojourners, Xiaoshuo Translations, and the Transcultural Canon of Early Chinese Fiction in Europe, 1697-1826

in East Asian Publishing and Society

Sections

References

  • Abdel-HalimMohamed Antoine Galland: Sa vie et son oeuvre 1964 Paris Nizet

  • Abel-RémusatJ.P “Préface” Iu-Kiao-Li ou Les Deux Cousines 1826 Paris Moutardier

  • Abel-RémusatJ.P Hoa-Tsian: Chinese Courtship In Verse” Journal des Savans 1826 Feb 67 74

  • Anonymous PercyThomas Hau Kiou chooan; or The Pleasing History 1761 London R. and J. Dodsley

  • Anonymous Abel-RémusatJ.P. “Note sur l’origine du papier de riz” L’Universel 1829 Aug 24 and 25 236 237 192

  • Anonymous FourmontÉtienne Catalogue des ouvrages de Monsieur Fourmont l’ainé professeur en langue Arabe au Collège Royal de France 1731 Amsterdam n.p.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UrsApp The Birth of Orientalism 2009 Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania Press

  • AravamudanSrinivas MakdisiSareeNussbaumFelicity “The Adventure Chronotrope and the Oriental Xenotrope: Galland, Sheridan, and Joyce Domesticate The Arabian Nights” The Arabian Nights in Historical Context: Between East and West 2008 New York Oxford University Press 235 263

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ArmstrongNancy Desire and Domestic Fiction: A Political History of the Novel 1987 New York Oxford University Press

  • BalayéSimone La Bibliothèque Nationale des origines à 1800 1988 Geneva Librairie Droz

  • Bibliothèque universelle des romans 1775-1789 Paris Au Bureau

  • BléchetFrançoise HitzelFrédéric “Les interprètes orientalistes de la Bibliothèque du roi” Istanbul et les langues orientales 1997 Paris Harmattan 89 102

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrockeyLiam The Journey to the East 2007 Cambridge Belnap Press

  • BrokawCynthia J. Commerce in Culture: The Sibao Book Trade in the Qing and Republican Periods 2007 Cambridge, MA Harvard University Asia Center

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Catalogue des livres imprimés et manuscrits composant la Bibliothèque de feu M. J.P. Abel-Rémusat 1833 Paris Merlin

  • Catalogue of the Pei-T’ang Library 2009 Beijing Guojia tushuguan

  • ChanLeo Tak-hung ChanLeo Tak-hung “Translation, Transmission, and Travel: Culturalist Theorizing on “Outward” Translations of Classical Chinese Literature” One Into Many: Translation and the Dissemination of Classical Chinese Literature 2003 Amsterdam Rodopi 321 346

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChartierRoger The Order of Books 1994 Stanford Stanford University Press

  • CheungKai-chong ChanLeo Tak-hung “The Haoqiu zhuan, the First Chinese Novel Translated in Europe: With Special Reference to Percy’s and Davis’s Renditions” One Into Many: Translation and the Dissemination of Classical Chinese Literature 2003 Amsterdam Rodopi 29 37

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChevrierFrançois-Antoine Bi-bi conte traduit du chinois par un Français n.p.

  • ClarkeJack A. “Abbé Jean-Paul Bignon: Moderator of the Academies and Royal Librarian” French Historical Studies 1973 8 213 235

  • CohenMonique “A Point of History: The Chinese Books Presented to the National Library in Paris by Joachim Bouvet, S.J., in 1697” Chinese Culture 1990 31 39 48

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CohenMoniqueMonnetNatalie Impressions de Chine 1992 Paris Bibliothèque nationale de France

  • Copie du catalogue donné à Mr. L’Abbé Sallier en 1745 (BNF Chinois 3598)

  • “Correspondence of the Fourmont Brothers” (BNF NAF 6556 ff. 182-186)

    • Export Citation
  • DamroshDavid What Is World Literature? 2003 Princeton and Oxford Princeton University Press

  • D’ArcyGuillard Hao-khieou-tchouan ou La femme accomplie: roman chinois 1842 Paris B. Duprat

  • DewNicholas Orientalism in Louis XIV’s France 2009 Oxford Oxford University Press

  • DobieMadeline MakdisiSareeNussbaumFelicity “Translation in the Contact Zone: Antoine Galland’s Mille et une nuits: contes arabes The Arabian Nights in Historical Context: Between East and West 2008 New York Oxford University Press 25 49

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DuBail Le fameux Chinois 1742 Paris Nicolas de Sersy

  • Du HaldeJean-Baptiste “Préface” Description de l’empire de la Chine 1736 [1735] The Hague Scheurleer

  • Du HaldeJean-Baptiste A General History of China 1736 London John Watts

  • Elisseeff-PoisleDanielle Nicolas Fréret (1688-1749): Réflexions d’un humaniste du XVIII e siècle sur la Chine 1978 Paris Collège de France, Mémoires de L’Institut des Hautes Études Chinoises

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FanFan-ti British Naturalists in Qing China: Science Empire and Cultural Encounter 2004 Cambridge Harvard University Press

  • FanFan-ti “Science in a Chinese Entrepôt: British Naturalists and Their Chinese Associates in Old Canton” Osiris 2003 18 60 78

  • FangRenpi方人疋 “Guangdong banke jishi 廣東板刻紀事 Lidai keshu gaikuang 歷代刻書概況 1991 Beijing Yinshua gongye

  • FossTheodore Nicholas “The European Sojourn of Philippe Couplet and Michael Shen Fuzong, 1683-1692” Philippe Couplet S.J.: The Man Who Brought China to Europe 1990 Nettetal Steyler Verlag 121 142

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FourmontÉtienne Sinicorum regiae bibliothecae librorum catalogus 1742 Paris Joseph Bullot

  • FourmontÉtienne Linguae Sinarum Mandarinicae hieroglyphicae grammatica duplex 1742 Paris Joseph Bullot

  • FourreauPierre S.J. Réflexions sur la grammaire chinoise de M. Fourmont (BNF Fr. 12215)

  • FréretNicolas “De la poësie des Chinois” Histoire de l’Académie royale des inscriptions et belles-lettres 1723 3 290

  • FréretNicolas “Éloge de M. L’Abbé le Bignon” Histoire de l’Académie royale des inscriptions et belles lettres 1751 16 367 380

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GimmMartin “Manchu Translations of Chinese Novels and Short Stories” Asia Major 1988 vol. 1-2 77 114 ser. 3

  • GirardotNorman J. The Victorian Translation of China: James Legge’s Oriental Pilgrimage 2002 Berkeley and Los Angeles University of California Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guangdong sheng zhi: Chuban zhi 廣東省志出板志 1997 Nanhai Guangdong renmin

  • GuignesJoseph de Essai historique sur la typographie orientale et grecque de l’Imprimerie royale 1787 Paris Imprimerie royale

  • GuignesJoseph dedes HauterayesMichel-Ange-André Le Roux Abrégé de la vie et des ouvrages de M. Fourmont 1747 Paris Bure

  • Hau kiou chooan histoire chinoise 1766 Lyon Duplain

  • Hau-kiou-choaan: ou L’union bien assortie: roman chinois 1828 Paris Moutardier

  • HegelRobert E. Reading Illustrated Fiction in Late Imperial China 1998 Stanford Stanford University Press

  • HeviaJames L. English Lessons: The Pedagogy of Imperialism in Nineteenth-Century China 2003 Durham and London Duke University Press

  • HostetlerLaura Qing Colonial Enterprise: Ethnography and Cartography in Early Modern China 2001 Chicago University of Chicago Press

  • HouangeArcade “Les Papiers d’Arcade Hoange” (BNF NAF 280/10005)

  • HouangeArcade Elisseeff-PoisleDanielle “Biographie autographe d’Arcade Hoang” Nicolas Fréret (1688-1749): Réflexions d’un humaniste du XVIII e siècle sur la Chine 1978 Paris Collège de France, Mémoires de L’Institut des Hautes Études Chinoises 166 176

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HouangeArcade Dictionnaire chinois-français [under: Hoamge Arcade] (BNF Chinois 9234)

  • HouangeArcade “Catalogue des livres chinois qui sont dans la Bibliothèque du Roi” (BNF Arch AR 68 fol. 85-92)

  • HuangMartin Negotiating Masculinities in Late Imperial China 2006 Honolulu University of Hawaii

  • HsiaFlorence Sojourners in a Strange Land: Jesuits & Their Scientific Missions in Late Imperial China 2009 Chicago The University of Chicago Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HsiaRonnie Po-chia BurkePeterPo-chia HsiaRonnie “The Catholic Mission and Translations in China, 1583-1700” Cultural Translation in Early Modern Europe 2007 Cambridge Cambridge University Press 39 50

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HsüWen-chin “Fictional Scenes on Chinese Transitional Porcelain (1620-ca. 1683) and their Sources of Decoration” Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 1986 58 1 146

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Iu-kiao-li or The Two Fair Cousins 1827 London Hunt and Clarke

  • JensenLionel Manufacturing Confucianism: Chinese Traditions and Universal Civilization 1997 Durham Duke University Press

  • Jingkan guben Haoqiu zhuan 精刊古本好逑傳 N.p. pre-1720. BNF Chinois 4101

  • Landry-DeronIsabelle CartierMichel “L’ombre portée par l’ouvrage de P. Du Halde sur les premiers sinologues français non-missionaires” La Chine entre amour et haine 1998 Paris Institut Ricci 33 41

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Landry-DeronIsabelle La preuve par la Chine: La Description de J.B. Du Halde jésuite 1735 2002 Paris Éditions de l’école des hautes études en sciences sociales

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Landry-DeronIsabelle “Les mathématiciens envoyés en Chine par Louis XIV en 1685” Archive for History of Exact Sciences 2001 55 423 463

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LaunayAdrien Histoire des Missions de Chine: Missions du Se-tchoan 1920 Paris Téqui

  • LaunayAdrien Histoire générale de la Société des Missions étrangères 1894 Paris Téqui

  • LeungCécile Étienne Fourmont 1683-1745: Oriental and Chinese Languages in Eighteenth-Century France 2002 Leuven Leuven University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LiangPeichi梁培熾 Xianggang daxue suocang muyushu xulu yu yanjiu 香港大學所藏木魚書敘錄與研究 1978 Hong Kong Xianggang daxue

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ListerMartin A Journey to Paris in the Year 1698 1967 [1699] Urbana-Champaign University of Illinois Press

  • LiuLydia H. The Clash of Empires: The Invention of China in Modern World Making 2004 Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press

  • LiuTs’un-yan Chinese Popular Fiction in Two London Libraries 1967 Hong Kong Longmen

  • LuoWei駱偉 Guangdong wenxian zonglu 廣東文獻綜錄 2000 Guangzhou Zhongshan daxue

  • LundbaekKnud Joseph Prémare 1666-1736 S.J.: Chinese Philology and Figurism 1991 Aarhus Aarhus University Press

  • McDermottJoseph A Social History of Books in Late Imperial China 2006 Hong Kong Hong Kong University Press

  • McKeonMichael The Origins of the English Novel 1600-1740 1987 Baltimore John Hopkins University Press

  • McKenzieD. F. Bibliography and the Sociology of Texts: The Panini Lectures 1986 London The British Library

  • McMahonKeith Misers Shrews and Polygamists: Sexuality and Male-Female Relations in Eighteenth-Century Chinese Fiction 1995 Durham Duke University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MenegonEugenio Ancestors Virgins and Friars: Christianity as a Local Religion in Late Imperial China 2009 Cambridge Harvard University Asia Center

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Confucius Sinarum Philosophus MeynardThierry S.J. The First Translation of the Confucian Classics 1687 Rome Institutum Historicum Societatis Jesu 2011

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MilesSteven B. The Sea of Learning: Mobility and Identity in Nineteenth-Century Guangzhou 2006 Cambridge Harvard University Asia Center

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MohlJulius Review of Progrès des études relatives à l’Egypte et à l’Orient Journal asiatique 1868 vol. 11 290 292 ser. 6

  • MontaigneMichel Journal de voyage en Italie par la Suisse et l’Allemagne en 1580 et 1581 1946 Paris Société des belles lettres

  • OelrichsJohann Carl Conrad Geschichte der königlichen Bibliothek zu Berlin 1752 Berlin Hauden and Spenern

  • O’MalleyJohn W. The Jesuits: Cultures Sciences and the Arts 1540-1773 1999 Toronto University of Toronto Press

  • O’MalleyJohn W. The Jesuits II: Cultures Sciences and the Arts 1540-1773 2006 Toronto University of Toronto Press

  • PeieiraJacques Montesquieu et la Chine 2008 Paris L’Harmattan

  • PorterDavid Ideographia: The Chinese Cipher in Early Modern Europe 2001 Stanford Stanford University Press

  • PorterDavid The Chinese Taste in Eighteenth-Century England 2010 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

  • PrattMarie Louise Pratt Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation 1992 New York Routledge

  • PrémareJoseph “Lettres de Prémare à Fourmont” (BNF Mss. fr. NAF 4754 ff. 1-16)

  • PrémareJoseph Notitia Linguae Sinicae (BNF Chinois 9259)

  • PrémareJoseph Notitia Linguae Sinicae 1893 Hong Kong Missions-Étrangères

  • ReedMarciaDemattèPaola China on Paper: European and Chinese Works from the Late Sixteenth to the Early Nineteenth Century 2007 Los Angeles Getty Research Institute

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RolstonDavid L. Traditional Chinese Fiction and Fiction Commentary: Reading and Writing Between the Lines 1997 Stanford Stanford University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SaidEdward Orientalism 1978 New York Vintage

  • SchrimpfHans Joachim Goethes Begriff der Weltliteratur 1968 Stuttgart Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung

  • SchwabRaymond L’auteur des Mille et une nuits: Vie d’Antoine Galland 1964 Paris Mercure de France

  • SermainJean-Paul Les mille et une nuits: Entre Orient et Occident 2009 Paris Éditions Desjonquères

  • SieberPatricia Theaters of Desire: Authors Readers and the Reproduction of Early Chinese Song-Drama 1300-2000 2003 New York Palgrave Macmillan

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SieberPatricia Wang-chi WongLawrence “Translation as Self-Invention: Jin Shengtan (1608-1661), Arcade Houange (1679-1716), and the Fashioning of a Transcultural Discourse of Scholar-Beauty Ideals” Towards a History of Translating: In Celebration of the Fortieth Anniversary of the Research Centre for Translation The Chinese University of Hong Kong 2013 Hong Kong Research Centre for Translation, The Chinese University of Hong Kong forthcoming

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SieberPatricia Wang-chi WongLawrenceFuehrerBernhard “Location, Location, Location: Peter Perring Thoms (1790-1855), the Cantonese Discourse Community, and the Invention of Literary Translation from the Chinese” Sinologists as Translators 2013 Hong Kong Research Centre for Translation, Chinese University of Hong Kong Press forthcoming

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SimonRenée Nicolas Fréret académician 1961 Geneva Droz

  • Soulié de MorantCharles George La brise au clair de lune“Le deuxième livre de genie” 1925 Paris Grasset

  • SpenceJonathan “The Paris Years of Arcadio Huang” Granta 1992 32 123 132

  • St. AndréJames ChanLeo Tak-hung “Modern Translation Theory and Past Translation Practice: European Translations of the Haoqiu zhuan One Into Many: Translation and the Dissemination of Classical Chinese Literature 2003 Amsterdam Rodopi 39 65

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StandaertNicolas The Interweaving of Rituals: Funerals in the Cultural Exchange Between China and Europe 2008 Seattle University of Washington Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van DykePaul A. The Canton Trade: Life and Enterprise on the China Coast 1700-1845 2005 Hong Kong Hong Kong University Press

  • Van BinhTruong “Les fonds de livres en Han-Nom hors du Vietnam. Inventaire No. 2: The Han-Nom Books preserved in Leiden” Bulletin d’Ecole française d’Extrême- Orient 1987 76 403 416

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WattsIan The Rise of the Novel 1957 Berkeley University of California Press

  • WestAndrew C. Catalogue of the Morrison Collection of Chinese Books 1998 London School of African and Oriental Studies

  • WyngaertAnastaas van den Sinica Franciscae 1929 Florence Ad Claras Aquas

  • Xinjuan xiuxiang quandian miben Yu Jiao Li 新鐫繡像圈點秘本玉嬌梨 Suzhou [金閶] Yongwantang 擁萬堂 prior to 1720; Fourmont 29

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • XuMinglong許明龍 Huang Jilüe yu zaoqi faguo hanxue 黃嘉略與早期法國漢學 2003 Beijing Zhonghua

  • Yixia Haoqiu zhuan 義俠好逑傳 tangLaohuixian老會賢堂 1814 SOAS London Morrison Collection

  • Yixia Haoqiu zhuan 義俠好逑傳 tangZhenxian振賢堂 1787 SOAS London Morrison Collection

  • YongHemingPengJing Chinese Lexicography: A History from 1046 BC to AD 1911 2008 Oxford Oxford University Press

  • ZhangXiumin張秀民QiHan韓琦 Zhonguo yinshua shi 中國印刷史 2006 Hangzhou Zhejiang guji

  • ZhouJianyu周建渝 Caizi jiaren xiaoshuo yanjiu 才子佳人小說研究 1998 Taibei Wenshizhe

  • 2

    Lionel JensenManufacturing Confucianism: Chinese Traditions and Universal Civilization (Durham: Duke University Press1997); David Porter Ideographia: The Chinese Cipher in Early Modern Europe (Stanford: Stanford University Press 2001); John W. O’Malley et al. ed. The Jesuits: Cultures Sciences and the Arts 1540-1773 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press 1999) and The Jesuits II: Cultures Sciences and the Arts 1540-1773 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press 2006); Florence Hsia Sojourners in a Strange Land: Jesuits & Their Scientific Missions in Late Imperial China (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press 2009); Liam Brockey The Journey to the East (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press 2007).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Norman J. GirardotThe Victorian Translation of China: James Legge’s Oriental Pilgrimage (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press2002); James L. Hevia English Lessons: The Pedagogy of Imperialism in Nineteenth-Century China (Durham and London: Duke University Press 2003); Lydia H. Liu The Clash of Empires: The Invention of China in Modern World Making (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press 2004).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Leo Tak-hung Chan“Translation, Transmission, and Travel: Culturalist Theorizing on “Outward” Translations of Classical Chinese Literature,” in One Into Many: Translation and the Dissemination of Classical Chinese Literature ed. Leo Tak-hung Chan (Amsterdam: Rodopi2003) 331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    D. F. McKenzieBibliography and the Sociology of Texts: The Panini Lectures (London: The British Library1986) 6-7.

  • 8

    Ronnie Po-chia Hsia“The Catholic Mission and Translations in China, 1583-1700,” in Cultural Translation in Early Modern Europeed. Peter Burke and Ronnie Po-chia Hsia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2007) 39-46.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Hsia“The Catholic Mission and Translations in China 1583-1700” 46.

  • 10

    See Joseph McDermottA Social History of Books in Late Imperial China (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press2006) 115-148.

  • 13

    Monique Cohen“A Point of History: The Chinese Books Presented to the National Library in Paris by Joachim Bouvet, S.J., in 1697,” Chinese Culture 31 (1990) 39-48.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Edward SaidOrientalism (New York: Vintage1978) passim.

  • 19

    Robert E. HegelReading Illustrated Fiction in Late Imperial China (Stanford: Stanford University Press1998) 65. In Hegel’s chart of the number of editions of works of fiction published during the Ming and Qing periods Yu Jiao Li occupies second place with 53 different editions. Haoqiu zhuan also figures prominently with 23 editions a fact all the more remarkable since the two texts only came into existence in the early Qing period.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Zhou JianyuCaizi jiaren xiaoshuo yanjiu (Taibei: Wenshizhe1998) 83-88. In the cases where the publishers and localities can be identified the following cities assume pride of place among publishers of caizi jiaren fiction (including Yu Jiao Li and Haoqiu zhuan): Suzhou Guangzhou Beijing Xiamen and Nanjing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Martin Gimm“Manchu Translations of Chinese Novels and Short Stories,” Asia Majorser. 3 vol. 1-2 (1988) 77-114. As Gimm points out the caizi jiaren genre constituted over 30% of the titles translated into Manchu at one point or another during the Qing dynasty (82). Among these the titles attributed to Tianhua zang zhuren 天花藏主人 including the Yu Jiao Li were particularly well-represented with eleven (not nine as Gimm notes) out of the sixteen titles that Tianhuazang zhuren had been involved with in one capacity or another.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    See Luo WeiGuangdong wenxian zonglu (Guangzhou: Zhongshan daxue2000) for an index of Qing-era books that were either written by known Guangdong natives or composed anonymously in popular Cantonese literary forms.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Paul A. van DykeThe Canton Trade: Life and Enterprise on the China Coast 1700-1845 (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press2005) 5-18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Ian WattsThe Rise of the Novel (Berkeley: University of California Press1957); Nancy Armstrong Desire and Domestic Fiction: A Political History of the Novel (New York: Oxford University Press 1987); Michael McKeon The Origins of the English Novel 1600-1740 (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press 1987).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Dobie“Translation in the Contact Zone” 41.

  • 40

    Anonymous (Thomas Percy) ed.Hau Kiou chooan; or The Pleasing History (London: R. and J. Dodsley1761). On the reception of the English translation see David Porter The Chinese Taste in Eighteenth-Century England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2010) 154-183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42

    Abel-Rémusat“Préface,” Iu-Kiao-Li ou Les Deux Cousines40.

  • 44

    Fan-ti FanBritish Naturalists in Qing China: Science Empire and Cultural Encounter (Cambridge: Harvard University Press2004) 1-2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45

    FanBritish Naturalists in Qing China1-4.

  • 46

    Laura HostetlerQing Colonial Enterprise: Ethnography and Cartography in Early Modern China (Chicago: University of Chicago Press2001); Nicolas Standaert The Interweaving of Rituals: Funerals in the Cultural Exchange Between China and Europe (Seattle: University of ¬Washington Press 2008); Eugenio Menegon Ancestors Virgins and Friars: Christianity as a Local Religion in Late Imperial China (Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center 2009).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48

    FanBritish Naturalists in Qing China5.

  • 56

    In 1663Louis XIV gave his blessings to the establishment of a new French missionary order the Foreign Missions of Paris (Missions étrangères de Paris) an order that eventually began to find a footing in coastal provinces in China and in Sichuan. For an account of the order by a member of the MEP see Adrien Launay Histoire générale de la Société des Missions étrangères (Paris: Téqui 1894).

  • 57

    On Le Blanc see XuHuang Jialüe7-8; see Adrien Launay Histoire des Missions de Chine: Missions du Se-tchoan (Paris: Téqui 1920) vol. 1 23 on the encounter and division of labor between Le Blanc de Lionne and Maigrot. Early in his career Le Blanc presided over a community in Chaozhou (Guangdong). When writing the preface in 1715 Houange mentions that LeBlanc served at that time as the apostolic vicar of the Province of Yunnan (Houange “Biographie autographe” 171).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61

    See Houange“Biographie autographe” 173.

  • 62

    See Houange“Biographie autographe” 174. Other evidence suggests that Houange made an abortive attempt to return to China under the auspices of the French East India Company. See Xu Huang Jialüe 79-87.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63

    See Houange“Biographie autographe” 173.

  • 64

    XuHuang Jialüe56-57.

  • 70

    Fréret“Éloge de M. L’Abbé le Bignon” 375. The eulogy also singled out Bignon’s efforts in securing royal funding for the Chinese grammar and dictionaries put together by Fourmont (377).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71

    Joseph de GuignesEssai historique sur la typographie orientale et grecque de l’Imprimerie royale (Paris: Imprimerie royale1787) 77. On the subsequent appointment of such interpreters at the Royal Library in languages other than Chinese see Françoise Bléchet “Les interprètes orientalists de la Bibliothèque du roi” in Istanbul et les langues orientales ed. Frédéric Hitzel (Paris: Harmattan 1997) 89-102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74

    De GuignesEssai historique sur la typographie orientale31. Cf. Elisseeff Nicolas Fréret 37.

  • 79

    See Elisseeff-PoisleNicolas Fréret86-88. Delisle left notes regarding the explanations that Houange had provided in order to verify the astronomical observations that the Jesuits had identified in ancient Chinese texts such as the Shujing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 84

    Elisseeff-PoisleNicolas Fréret46.

  • 92

    In his recollections written in 1731Fréret recalls that the year he started to interact with Sr. Hoang was 1713. He also notes that it was the Abbé François Sevin (1682-1741) who proposed to him that he should go see Arcadio Houange (see Elisseeff-Poisle “Papiers de Nicolas Fréret” in her Nicolas Fréret 140). However his diary for expenses incurred on behalf of Houange dates to December 1712.

  • 94

    For Aug 28 1714Houange notes that he went to the BR with Fréret (BNF Mss fr. NAF 10005 f. 32A).

  • 97

    Heming Yong and Jing PengChinese Lexicography: A History from 1046 BC to AD 1911 (Oxford: Oxford University Press2008) 277.

  • 98

    Quoted in Elisseeff-PoisleNicolas Fréret149.

  • 102

    J.P. Abel-Rémusat“Préface,” Iu-Kiao-Li ou Les Deux Cousines45. In explaining his selection of this novel Abel-Rémusat notes that he was partially inspired by the high regard in which two learned missionaries Joseph Prémare and the Bishop of Rosalie (aka Artus de Lionne) held this novel. On the former’s appreciation see below. As for Lionne Arcade Houange refers to the books in the MEP’s possession as “Monsieur Rosalie’s books” and we know that a copy of the Yu Jiao Li from the MEP entered the BR in 1720 (see Catalogus codicum manuscriptorum Bibliothecae regiae (Paris: Imprimerie royale 1739) vol. 1 394).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 106

    See Elisseeff-PoisleNicolas Fréret 145-146.

  • 107

    Quoted in Elisseeff-PoisleNicolas Fréret 145.

  • 108

    Fréret“De la poësie des Chinois,” Histoire de l’Académie royale des inscriptions et belles-lettres 3 (1723) 290. This essay was later cited by Abel-Rémusat “Hoa-Tsian: Chinese Courtship In Verse” Journal des Savans (Feb 1826) 68.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 113

    J.P. Abel-Rémusat tr.Iu-kiao-li ou Les deux cousins; romans chinois (Paris: Moutardier1826). An English translation based on the French version appeared a year later under Iu-kiao-li or The Two Fair Cousins (London: Hunt and Clarke 1827).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 119

    According to Liu Ts’un-yanChinese Popular Fiction in Two London Libraries (Hong Kong: Longmen1967) 314 the edition of Haoqiu zhuan then held in the British Museum was perhaps the earliest extant copy of the novel (1683) published by Duchuxuan 獨處軒 and might have been the one sent back with James Wilkerson’s translation (see below). The title format seems to have corresponded to common practice of Guangzhou publishers of announcing the date across the top bar of the title page. Among Bignon’s 1720 donation to the BR the copy of the Haoqiu zhuan originated in Suzhou (Fourmont 28). In Zhou Jianyu’s compilation the ¬earliest datable edition of the Haoqiu zhuan from Guangzhou dates from 1760 and was published by Qingyunlou 青雲樓 (see Zhou Caizi jiaren xiaoshuo yanjiu 84).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 131

    BrockeyThe Journey to the East: The Jesuit Mission to China 1579-1724241-286.

  • 134

    Percy“Preface,” Hau Kiou chooan; or The Pleasing Historyxi.

  • 135

    Martin HuangNegotiating Masculinities in Late Imperial China (Honolulu: University of Hawaii2006) 138.

  • 136

    Keith McMahonMisers Shrews and Polygamists: Sexuality and Male-Female Relations in Eighteenth-Century China (Durham: Duke University Press1995) 108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 141

    See Marcia Reed“A Perfume Is Best from Afar: Publishing China for Europe,” in China on Paper: European and Chinese Works from the Late Sixteenth to the Early Nineteenth Centuryed. Marcia Reed and Paola Demattè (Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute2007) 10-20.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 145

    Michel MontaigneJournal de Voyage en Italie par la Suisse et l’Allemagne en 1580 et 1581 (Paris: Société des belles-lettres1946) 223. Thanks to Anthony Clarke for bringing this reference to my attention.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 146

    Martin ListerA Journey to Paris in the Year 1698 (Urbana: University of Illinois1967) 111.

  • 147

    Jean-Baptiste Du Halde ed.A General History of China (London: John Watts1736) vol. 2 437-38.

  • 152

    Roger ChartierThe Order of Books (Stanford: Stanford University Press1994) 25-59.

  • 153

    Jean-Baptiste Du Halde“Préface,” Description de l’empire de la China (The Hague: Scheurleer 1736) vol. 1 passim.

  • 155

    Landry-DeronLa preuve par la Chine17.

  • 156

    Du Halde“Préface,” Description de l’empire de la Chine xiv-xvii.

  • 157

    Du Halde“Préface,” Description de l’empire de la Chine xiii-xxxiv.

  • 159

    Percy“Preface,” Hau kiou choaanor the Pleasing History xi.

  • 160

    Percy“Preface,” Hau kiou choaanor the Pleasing History xvii: “A foreigner will form a truer notion of the genius and spirit of the English from one page of Fielding and one or two writers now alive than from whole volumes of Present States of England or French Letters concerning the English Nation.” It is interesting in and of itself that Percy chose to focus on Fielding among contemporary English novelists as a point of comparison for Haoqiu zhuan in contrast to Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) who singled out Samuel Richardson as the closest counterpart for the Chinese scholar-beauty works that he had read in translation. On the differences between Fielding and Richardson see Watts The Rise of the Novel 268-289 where Watts stresses the priority of plot over inner life in Fielding’s more classically oriented ethically normative and narratorially intrusive approach to the novel.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 161

    Dobie“Translation in the Contact Zone” 42.

  • 163

    Percy“Preface,” Hau kiou choaanor the Pleasing History xi.

  • 164

    See for example Guillard d’Arcy“[Préface],” Hao-Khieou-Tchouan ou La femme accomplie (Paris: Duprat 1842): “This text is considered one of the tsaï-tseu [caizi book of genius] among the Chinese and hence should be of interest to us” (viii).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 165

    Aravamudan“The Adventure Chronotrope and the Oriental Xenotrope” 237. As Aravamudan notes after the tenth century the Arabian stories known under the name Alf layla wa layla flourished primarily through free oral adaptations.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 91 88 2
Full Text Views 113 113 1
PDF Downloads 15 15 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0