A Social History of the Treasured Canon of the Mysterious Capital in North China under Mongol-Yuan Rule

in East Asian Publishing and Society
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Abstract

The history of the Treasured Canon of the Mysterious Capital, printed and published by Quanzhen Daoists in 1244, demonstrates important changes in social and political relations in north China in the thirteenth century. The Quanzhen Daoist church attracted many former Confucian scholars, established a cross-regional institutional network, coordinated different lineages, and collaborated with Mongolian and Chinese sponsors in the political world to carry out the canon project. The publication of the canon gave rise to new teaching positions for scholarly Daoists in new Daoist-style schools, and offered them an alternate route to spiritual realization, fame, and power. When facing the 1281 canon-burning catastrophe, Quanzhen Daoists produced new inscriptions and steles to erase the canon’s place in earlier Quanzhen activities. Only when the political environment shifted again in favor of the Quanzhen order, did Quanzhen Daoists choose to resurrect the history of the publication of the Treasured Canon of the Mysterious Capital.

A Social History of the Treasured Canon of the Mysterious Capital in North China under Mongol-Yuan Rule

in East Asian Publishing and Society

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References

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3

Chen GuofuDaozang yuanliu kao161-174; Judith Boltz A survey of Taoist literature 6; van der Loon Taoist booksinthe libraries of the Sung period 51; Schipper and Verellen Taoist Canon 1131-33. Van der Loon also describes the features of the printed canon by summarizing published descriptions and illustrations of some surviving fragments which consist of a number of chapters of two Daoist texts: the Seven slips from the bookbag in the clouds (Yunji qiqian 雲笈七簽) and the Scripture of great clarity in wind and dews (Taiqing fenglu jing 太清風露經). These fragments are now preserved in the National Library in Beijing.

4

Chia‘The Uses of print in early Quanzhen Daoist texts’167-213.

9

Zhang XiuminZhongguo yinshua shi174 200-1; Suo Ya ‘Mengyuan Shanxi Pingyang keshu shiye de tedian yu chengjiu’ 103-4.

11

Yuan Haowen‘Tongzhen zi mujieming’Yuan Haowen quanji31: 647-8. On the Daoist Monastery of Mysterious Capital see Hou Huiming ‘Yuan kan Xuandu baozang keju yu Xuandu guan kao’ 94-96.

22

Chia‘The uses of print in early Quanzhen Daoist texts’178. According to Chen Yuan the original epitaph for Li Zhiquan composed by Li Wei does not include a sentence which states that Li Zhiquan compiled the Xiuzhen wenyuan (又集七真及已下諸師詩賦二十卷目曰修真文苑). This sentence was inserted by Li Daoqian when he recorded the epitaph in the Ganshui xianyuan lu 甘水仙源錄). See Chen Yuan Daojia jinshilüe 581.

23

Yuan Haowen‘Tongzhen zi mujieming’Yuan Haowen quanji31: 647-8; ‘Chongyang chengdao gong ji’ 重陽成道宮記 Daojia jinshilüe 326.

24

Judith BoltzA survey of Taoist literature65-6.

25

Marsone‘Quanzhen movement: a hagiographic treatment of history’109. The ‘Four Wise Men’ referred to Ma Danyang 馬丹陽/Ma Yu 馬鈺 (1123-1184) Tan Changzhen 譚長真/ Tan Chuduan 譚處端 (1123-1185) Liu Changsheng 劉長生 / Liu Chuxuan 劉處玄 (1147-1203) and Qiu Changchun 丘長春/ Qiu Chuji 丘處機 (1148-1227). The ‘Seven Perfected’ includes these four and three others: Wang Yuyang 王玉陽/ Wang Chuyi 王處一 (1142-1217) Hao Guangning 郝廣寧/ Hao Datong 郝大通 (1140-1213) and Sun Qingjing 孫清淨/ Sun Buer 孫不二 (1119-1183).

26

Chia‘The uses of print in early Quanzhen Daoist texts’179.

27

Chia‘The uses of print in early Quanzhen Daoist texts’178.

30

Schipper and VerellenTaoist Canon1132.

32

Du Siwen‘Chongxiu shuigu Lequan guan ji’Daojia jinshi lüe652.

33

Li Ding‘Xuandu zhidao piyun zhenren Song tianshi citang beiming bing xu’547.

34

‘San lao tonggong bei’Daojia jinshi lüe560-1.

39

Li Ding‘Xuandu zhidao piyun zhenren Song tianshi citang beiming bing xu’Daojia jinshi lüe547. The stele that bears Li Ding’s inscription is now preserved at the Palace of Eternal Joy (Yongle gong 永樂宮) in Ruicheng 芮城 county Shanxi province. The rear side of the stele lists names of Quanzhen clergy and the institutions that participated in the establishment of a shrine dedicated to Song Defang at the Palace of Eternal Joy. The inscription of this list has not been published. I transcribed it based on photos of the stele I took on June 13 2009. Li Ding’s inscription refers to Song Zhiqin’s monastery as ‘Xuandu gong’ but the list on the rear side of the stele contains its complete name ‘Xuandu wanshou gong.’ In addition according to this list in 1263 this monastery had two ‘Lecturers of the Three Caves’ (Sandong jiangshi 三洞講師)—Xin Zhiyi 辛志夷 and Zhao Zhiduan 趙志端. As we will discuss later many of these lecturers had been working at editing the Daoist canon indicating that the Palace of Mysterious Capital and Longevity most likely held a branch office. Hou argues that the Daoist Monastery of Limitless Heaven (Haotian guan 昊天觀) was the center of the seven branch offices in Taiyuan. This is possible although we have no textual evidence. See Hou Huiming ‘Yuan kan Xuandu baozang keju yu Xuandu guan kao’ 93.

41

Wang Liyong‘Xuantong hongjiao Piyun zhenren daoxing zhi bei’Daojia jinshi lüe753-4.

52

Li Zhiquan‘Jiyuan shifang longxiang wanshou gong ji’Daojia jinshi lüe507: □宮皇太子令旨奏過,合於諸路置局雕印《玄都寶藏》,三洞四輔真經,俱系歷代帝王安鎮國祚,保天長存者也 (Note: the missing word at the beginning must be ‘東’ as only the term ‘東宮皇太子’ would make sense in Yuan historical sources).

54

Shang Ting‘Xuandu zhidao Chongwen minghua zhenren daoxing zhi bei’Daojia jinshi lüe614.

58

Chia‘The uses of print in early Quanzhen Daoist texts’176.

61

Rachewiltz‘Some remarks on Töregene’s edict of 1240’50-3.

62

Yi Gou‘Xuanmen zhangjiao qinghe miaodao guanghua zhenren Yin zongshi beiming bing xu’Daojia jinshi lüe568.

63

Yi Gou‘Xuanmen zhangjiao qinghe miaodao guanghua zhenren Yin zongshi beiming bing xu’Daojia jinshi lüe568; Zhang Tianzuo 張天祚 ‘Qinghe zhenren beiyou yulu xu’ 清和真人北游語錄序 Li Jin 李進 ‘Qinghe zhenren beiyou yulu xu’ 清和真人北游語錄序 Li Xiusheng Quan Yuanwen 1: 27-29; ‘Baoguang ji xu’ 葆光集序 in Daozang 25: 501-2. Du Feng was not a Confucian scholar as described in the Taoist Canon (p. 1128). Instead he came from a peasant family and worked his way up to be local governor of Qinzhou prefecture through military achievements after surrendering to the Mongols. For the biography of Du Feng see Song Lian Yuanshi 151: 3575-6.

64

Christopher Atwood‘Validation by holiness or sovereignty: religious toleration as political theology in the Mongol world empire of the thirteenth century’244-53.

65

Rachewiltz‘Some remarks on Töregene’s edict of 1240’42-8.

67

Li Zhiquan‘Qinghe yandao xuande zhenren xianji zhi bei’Daojia jin shi lüe540.

70

Li Zhiquan‘Jiyuan shifang longxiang wanshou gong ji’Daojia jinshi lüe507.

72

Shang Ting‘Xuandu zhidao Chongwen minghua zhenren daoxing zhi bei’Daojia jinshi lüe614.

73

Du Siwen‘Chongxiu shuigu Lequan guan ji’Daojia jinshi lüe653.

74

Shang Ting‘Xuandu zhidao Chongwen minghua zhenren daoxing zhi bei’Daojia jinshi lüe614.

76

Schipper and VerellenTaoist Canon639.

82

Li Ding‘Xuandu zhidao piyun zhenren Song tianshi citang beiming bing xu’Daojia jinshi lüe547. 故每藏立一知道之士主師席,令講演經中所載聖賢之所以為聖賢之事。 . . . . . .于中或有推而廣之,廓聖人有教無類之妙用。無問在玄門不在玄門,但虛己而來聽者.

84

Yuan Haowen‘Tongzhen zi mujieming’Yuan Haowen quanji 31: 648.

85

Shang Ting‘Xuandu zhidao Chongwen minghua zhenren daoxing zhi bei’Daojia jinshi lüe614. 自藏室之興,玄門之士,登真達道者有之,窮理盡性者有之,明經講授者亦有之,皆真人作成之力.

86

EskildsenThe teachings and practices of the early Quanzhen Taoist masters39-56.

94

Wang Pan‘Xuanmen sifa zhangjiao zongshi Chengming zhenren daoxing beiming bingxu’Daojia jinshi lüe601. 全真之教,以識心見性為宗,損己利物為行,不資參學,不立文字,自重陽王真人至李真常,凡三傳,學者漸知讀書,不以文字為障蔽。及師掌教,大暢玄旨,然後學者皆知講論經典,涵泳義理.

96

Song Bo‘Xuanming Wenjing Tianle Zhenren Li gong daoxingming xu’174. For Li Daoqian’s writings see Boltz A survey of Taoist literature 68.

99

Song Bo‘Xuanming Wenjing Tianle Zhenren Li gong daoxingming xu’Daojia jinshi lüe714; Li Daoqian ‘Zhongnan shan Zongsheng gong zhu Shi gong daoxing ji’ Daojia jinshi lüe 637.

102

Cai MeibiaoYuandai baihua bei ji lu104.

103

Chia‘The uses of print in early Quanzhen Daoist texts’201.

104

Song LianYuanshi11: 234.

107

Li Ding‘Xuandu zhidao piyun zhenren Song tianshi citang beiming bing xu’; Shang Ting, ‘Xuandu zhidao Chongwen minghua zhenren daoxing zhi bei’; Wang Liyong, ‘Xuantong hongjiao Piyun zhenren daoxing zhi bei’Daojia jinshi lüe547 613 753-4. The 1262 stele inscribes Li Ding’s inscription the 1274 stele inscribes Shang Ting’s and the 1320 stele inscribes Wang Liyong’s.

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