Trafficking in Human Beings for Labour Exploitation: Cooperation in an Integrated Approach

In: European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice
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  • 1 Tilburg University, Netherlands

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  • 5)

    UN Office on Drugs and Crime, Legislative Guides for the Implementation of the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organised Crime and the Protocols thereto (New York, NY: UN, 2004), pp. 10–11: ‘It must be strongly emphasised that, while offences must involve transnationality and organised criminal groups for the Convention and its international cooperation provisions to apply, neither of these must be made elements of the domestic offence (Article 34, para. 2).’ In addition, more specifically in relation to THB pp. 258–259, ‘Notwithstanding the comment in Paragraph 23 about the Convention dealing only with situations having an element of transnationality or organised crime, it will be noted that the relevant provisions of the Convention and the Protocol must be reviewed carefully. The text of the provisions is relatively broad.’ ….’It is important for drafters of legislation to note that the provisions relating to the involvement of transnationality and organised crime do not always apply.’, ‘… the Convention provides that legislators must not incorporate elements concerning transnationality or an organised criminal group into domestic offence provisions.’… ‘In the case of trafficking in persons, domestic offences should apply even where transnationality and the involvement of organised criminal groups do not exist.’

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  • 11)

    K. Skrivankova, loc.cit., pp. 16–21.

  • 21)

    ILO, Follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work: Priorities and Action Plans for Technical Cooperation, Fifth Item, Govern Body – Committee on Technical Cooperation (Geneva: ILO, 2001).

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  • 22)

    ILO, Global Estimate of Forced Labour. Results and Methodology (Geneva: ILO, 2012), pp. 19–20.

  • 27)

    K. Bales and R. Soodalter, The Slave Next Door: Human Trafficking and Slavery in America Today, (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2009) p. 13.

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  • 36)

    J.G. Pope, loc. cit., pp. 1849–1875.

  • 38)

    J. G. Pope, loc. cit., p. 1859, K. Skrivankova, loc. cit., p. 18–21, D.F. Haynes, loc. cit., Part IV under B.

  • 40)

    A. Aronowitz et al., op. cit., pp. 76–77.

  • 41)

     See also B. Andrees, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking, Handbook for Labour Inspections (Geneva: ILO, 2008).

  • 42)

    B. Andrees, op. cit., pp. 14–15.

  • 45)

    B. Andrees, op. cit., pp. 18–19.

  • 46)

    M. Heemskerk and C. Rijken, loc. cit., pp. 96–105.

  • 47)

    In four years as of 2005, the labour inspectorate applied fines to the amount of €566 250 for illegal employment, not paying minimum wages and not reporting an accident. The police had received complaints of maltreatment, intimidation, underpayment and the withholding of identity papers. The municipality was aware that foreign workers were living at J.’s premises in violation of the housing regulations.

  • 48)

    M. Heemskerk and C. Rijken, loc. cit., p. 148.

  • 56)

    OM National Office, Handbook to combat Trafficking in Human Beings (Den Haag: OM National Office, 2009), p. 111.

  • 58)

    B. Andrees, op. cit., p. 29. In the same context she proposes the conclusion of cooperation agreements or memoranda of understanding by labour inspectorates with national and international stakeholders, providing for a more structured basis for cooperation.

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  • 59)

    H. Winter, op. cit., pp. 131; H. Chen, Intelligence and Security Informatics for International Security: Information Sharing and Data Mining (Berlin: Springer, 2009).

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  • 61)

    C. Rijken, loc. cit., p. 407.

  • 64)

    Memo/10/349 Brussels, 20 July 2010, on EU information management instruments.

  • 68)

    G. C. Zaharia, loc. cit., p. 196.

  • 78)

    K. Skrivankova, loc. cit., p. 9 ; D.F. Haynes, loc. cit., Part II, A(2).

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