This paper identifies and analyses problems and weaknesses standing in the way of the provision of an effective defence in transnational criminal proceedings. Drawing upon some key findings of the Euroneeds study, it extrapolates results from that examination of eu criminal justice as valid for all transnational justice settings. It is argued that the failure to recognise legally the difference between national and transnational proceedings leads to a lacuna. Transnational criminal law and justice mechanisms are recognised as developed, above all, as tools of repressive criminal procedure leaving individuals facing them stripped of their constitutional identities and corresponding protective rights. It is argued that those creating transnational criminal law and justice mechanisms must recognise and provide for a more balanced system to avoid such contexts acting as constitutional loop-holes and to ensure the provision of defence rights and procedural safeguards in such proceedings.
Europol, e.g., te-sat2012: Europol eu Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (The Hague: Europol, 2012) available online at https://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/publications/europoltsat.pdf and Europol Trafficking Human Beings in the European Union (The Hague: Europol, 2011), available online at https://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/publications/trafficking-in-human-beings-in-the-european-union-2011.pdf. For olaf, e.g., olafThe olaf Report 2011 (Brussels: European Commission, 2012) p. 27 et seq., available online at http://ec.europa.eu/anti_fraud/documents/reports-olaf/2011/olaf_report_2011.pdf.
See, e.g., S. Trechsel, Human Rights in Criminal Proceedings (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005) pp. 36 et seq. and pp. 94 et seq.