The article examines the measures for combating forms of social pathology, such as criminal behavior and medicalized moral disorders, which were debated in Bulgaria from the end of 19th century onwards. Hence, the regime of mental incapacity under Bulgarian criminal law and the professional discussions on the nature of crime and abnormality are explored. The analysis focuses on the influence of criminological concepts on Bulgarian psychiatric and legal discourses, as well as on their links to interwar eugenic projects. The engagement of Bulgarian intellectuals with criminological and eugenic policies is studied within a general process of adoption and adaptation of Western biopolitical models. The article addresses the conceptual specifics of the Bulgarian debates on social and mental pathology and their practical relevance.