Introduction

Studying Communist Dictatorships: From Comparative to Transnational History

in East Central Europe
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

The downfall of the communist system and the end of the Cold War, the liberalization of historical discourses in Central and Eastern Europe, the opening up of new archival collections for scientific research, the intensification of academic exchange and interaction between local and foreign scholars, and the increasing globalization of the world have challenged scholars to experiment with new transnational approaches to the study of communist regimes, such as shared/entangled history, history of transfers, and histoire croisée. Against this background, the current thematic issue aims to evaluate the potential impact of transnational approaches on the field of communist studies, within the broader frameworks of European and world history. In this introduction, we provide a reappraisal of the history, legacy, and prospects of comparative communist studies, highlighting the potential heuristic advantages posed by the applications of new approaches to the “cross-history” of communist regimes. We argue that transnational research perspectives can fertilize communist studies, leading not only to novel insights but to the transformation of the field itself, by setting it on new foundations. By employing transnational perspectives, scholars are able to challenge the traditional understanding of communist regimes as quasi-isolated national entities, highlighting instead the long-term impact of cross-border linkages and transfers on sociopolitical developments within the Soviet camp. It is our conviction that the entangled history of communist dictatorships in Eastern Europe can function as a laboratory for experimenting with new transnational perspectives, leading to innovative interdisciplinary approaches in a joint effort of scholars from various disciplines and historiographical traditions.

Sections

References

AdlerLes K., and PatersonThomas G.. 1970. “Red Fascism: The Merger of Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia in the American Image of Totalitarianism, 1930’s–1950’s.” The American Historical Review 75: 10461064.

AHR Conversation. 2006. C. A. Bayly, Sven Beckert, Matthew Connelly, Isabel Hofmeyr, Wendy Kozol, and Patricia Seed, “AHR Conversation: On Transnational History.” The American Historical Review 111, no. 5: 14411464.

AporBalázs et al. 2004. The Leader Cult in Communist Dictatorships: Stalin and the Eastern Bloc. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

——, AporPéter, and ReesE. A., eds. 2008. The Sovietization of Eastern Europe: New Perspectives on the Postwar Period. Washington, DC: New Academia Publishing.

ApplebaumAnne. 2012. Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1944–56. London: Allen Lane.

ArendtHannah. 1973. The Origins of Totalitarianism. New edition with added prefaces. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. First edition: 1951.

AshTimothy Garton. 1999. History of the Present: Essays, Sketches, and Dispatches from Europe in the 1990s. London: Penguin Books.

BehrendsJan C. 2006. Die erfundene Freundschaft. Propaganda für die Sowjetunion in Polen und in der DDR. Cologne, Weimar, Vienna: Böhlau.

——. 2013. “Gewalt und Staatlichkeit im 20. Jahrhundert. Einige Tendenzen zeithistorischer Forschung.” Neue Politische Literatur. Berichte über das internationale Schrifttum 58, no. 1: 3948.

BerendIván T. 1996. Central and Eastern Europe, 1944–1993: Detour from the Periphery to the Periphery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

——. 2009. History in My Life: A Memoir of Three Eras. Budapest, New York: Central European University Press.

BergerStefan. 2002. “National Paradigm and Legitimacy: Uses of Academic History Writing in the 1960s.” In The Workers and Peasants’ State: Communism and Society in East Germany under Ulbricht 1945–71, ed. MajorPatrick and OsmondJonathan, 244261. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

——, DonovanMark, and PassmoreKevin, eds. 1999. Writing National Histories: Western Europe since 1800. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

BlackCyril E. 1966. The Dynamics of Modernization: A Study in Comparative History. New York: Harper & Row.

BonnellVictoria E. and HuntLynn, eds. 1999. Beyond the Cultural Turn: New Directions in the Study of Society and Culture. Berkeley, Cal.: University of California Press.

BorysJurij. 1980. The Sovietization of Ukraine, 1917–1923: The Communist Doctrine and Practice of National Self-Determination. Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies.

BrainardGuy Peters. 1998. Comparative Politics: Theory and Methods. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

BrennerChristiane, and HeumosPeter, eds. 2005. Sozialgeschichtliche Kommunismusforschung: Tschechoslowakei, Polen, Ungarn und DDR 1948-1968. Munich: Oldenbourg.

BrzostekBłażej. 2007. Za Progiem. Życie Codzienne W Przestrzeni Publicznej Warszawy Lat 1955–1970 [Beyond the threshold: Everyday life in Warsaw’s public spaces 1955–1970]. Warsaw: Trio.

CalvinPatricia. 2005. “Defining Transnationalism.” Contemporary European History 14, no. 4: 421439.

CaseWilliam. 1987. “Social History and the Revisionism of the Stalinist Era.” Russian Review 46, no. 4: 382385.

CerteauMichel de. 1984. The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.

ChirotDaniel. 1991. “What Happened in Eastern Europe in 1989?.” In The Crisis of Leninism and the Decline of the Left, ed. ChirotDaniel, 332. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

CirtautasArista M. 1997. The Polish Solidarity Movement: Revolution, Democracy and Natural Rights. London: Routledge.

CohenDeborah, and O’ConnorMaura, eds. 2004. Comparison and History: Europe in Cross-National Perspective. New York: Routledge.

CohenStephen F. 1986. “Stalin’s Terror as Social History.” Russian Review 45, no. 4: 375384.

ConnellyJohn. 2000. Captive University: The Sovietization of East German, Czech and Polish Higher Education, 1945–1956. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

——, and GrüttnerMichael, eds. 2005. Universities under Dictatorship. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

ConquestRobert. 1988. The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine. New York: Arrow Books.

——. 1990. The Great Terror: A Reassessment. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press.

CourtoisStéphane, ed. 1997. Le Livre noir du communisme: Crimes, terreur, répression. Paris: Robert Laffont. English edition: 1999. The Black Book of Communism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

CramptonRichard J. 1994. Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century. London: Routledge.

CrowleyDavid, and ReidSusan E., eds. 2002. Socialist Spaces: Sites of Everyday Life in the Eastern Bloc. Oxford: Berg.

DanyelJürgen. 2008. “Crossing 68/89. Grenzüberschreitungen und Schnittpunkte zwischen den Umbrüchen.” In Crossing 68/89. Grenzüberschreitungen und Schnittpunkte zwischen den Umbrüchen, ed. DanyelJürgen, SchevandoJennifer, and KruhlStephan, 411. Berlin: Metropol.

David-FoxMichael. 2011. “The Implications of Transnationalism.” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 12, no. 4: 885904.

——, and PéteriGyörgy, eds. 2000a. Academia in Upheaval: Origins, Transfers, and Transformations of the Communist Academic Regime in Russia and East Central Europe. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garey.

DehneHarald. 1995. “Have We Come Any Closer to Alltag? Everyday Reality and Workers’ Lives as an Object of Historical Research in the German Democratic Republic.” In The History of Everyday Life: Reconstructing Historical Experiences and Ways of Life, ed. LüdtkeAlf, 116148. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

DudaIgor. 2005. U potrazi za blagostanjem: O povijesti dokolice i potrosackog drustva u Hrvatskoj 1950-ih i 1960-ih [Searching for Welfare: The History of Leisure and Consumer Society in Croatia in the 1950s and 1960s]. Zagreb: Srednja Europe.

EleyGeoff. 1995. “Foreword.” In The History of Everyday Life, ed. LüdtkeAlf, vii–xiii. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

ElkanaYehuda, ed. 2002. Unravelling Ties: From Social Cohesion to New Practices of Connectedness. Frankfurt am Main: Campus Verlag.

EspagneMichel and MichaelWerner eds. 1988. Transferts: les relations interculturelles dans l’espace franco allemand (XVIIe ei XIXe sièle). Paris: Editions Recherche sur les civilisations.

FalkBarbara. 2003. The Dilemmas of Dissidence in East Central Europe. New York, Budapest: CEU Press.

FedynskyjJurij. 1953. “Sovietization of an Occupied Area through the Medium of the Courts (Northern Bukovina).” American Slavic and East European Review 12, no. 1: 4456.

FeldmanDavid. 2011. “Preface.” In Post-War Reconstruction in Europe: International Perspectives, 1945–1949. ed. MazowerMark, ReinischJessica, and FeldmanDavid. Supplement, Past and Present no. 6: 916. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

FitzpatrickSheila. 1979. Education and Social Mobility in the Soviet Union: 1921–1934. London: Cambridge University Press.

——, ed. 1992. The Cultural Front: Power and Culture in Revolutionary Russia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

——. 1994. Stalin’s Peasants: Resistance and Survival in the Russian Village after Collectivization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

——. 1999. Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

——, ed. 2000. Stalinism: New Directions. London: Routledge.

——, RabinowitchAlexander, and StitesRichard, eds. 1991. Russia in the Era of NEP: Explorations in Soviet Society and Culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

FoucaultMichel. 1979. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage Books.

——. 1988–1990. The History of Sexuality, vols. 1–3. New York: Vintage Books.

FriedrichCarl J., ed. 1964. Totalitarianism. New York: Grosset & Dunlap.

——, and BrzezinskiZbigniew K.. 1956. Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 2nd rev. ed. by FriedrichCarl J., New York: Praeger, 1965.

FulbrookMary, ed. 1993. National Histories and European History. London: UCL Press.

GaltungJohan. 1969. “Violence, Peace, and Peace Research.” Journal of Peace Research 6, no. 3: 167191.

GerlachChristian, and WerthNicholas. 2009. “State Violence – Violent Societies.” In Beyond Totalitarianism: Stalinism and Nazism Compared, ed. Geyer and Fitzpatrick, 133179.

GettyJ. Arch. 1985. Origins of the Great Purges: The Soviet Communist Party Reconsidered, 1933–1938. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

GeyerMichael. 1989. “Historical Fiction of Anatomy and the Europeanization of National History.” Central European History 22, nos. 3–4: 316342.

——. 2006. “Review Symposium ‘Transnationale Geschichte’: The New Consensus.” Accessed 27 Sept. 2012. http://hsozkult.geschichte.hu-berlin.de/rezensionen/id=812&type=revsymp.

——, and FitzpatrickSheila, eds. 2009. Beyond Totalitarianism: Stalinism and Nazism Compared. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

GildeaRobert, MarkJames, and WarringAnette, eds. 2013. Europe’s 1968: Voices of Revolt. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

GinzburgCarlo. 2005. “Latitude, Slaves, and the Bible: An Experiment in Microhistory.” Critical Inquiry 31, no. 1: 665683.

GleasonAbbott. 1995. Totalitarianism: The Inner History of the Cold War. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

GoltzAnna von der, ed. 2011. Talking About My Generation. Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag.

GórnyMaciej 2008. “Marxist History of Historiography in Poland, Czechoslovakia and East Germany (late 1940s – late 1960s).” In The Sovietization of Eastern Europe: New Perspectives on the Postwar Period, ed. Apor, Apor, and Rees, 249263.

——. 2012. “Nation-Building in Marxist Historical Narratives in East-Central Europe in the 1950s.” In Historische Nationsforschung im geteilten Europa 1945–1989, ed. KolařPavel and ŘeznikMiloš, 137147. Cologne: Böhlau.

GrewRaymond. 1985. “The Comparative Weakness of American History.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 16, no. 1: 87101.

Grift, Liesbeth van de. 2012. Securing the Communist State: The Reconstruction of Coercive Institutions in the Soviet Zone of Germany and Romania, 1944–1948. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers / Lexington.

GrossJan T. 2002. Revolution from Abroad: The Soviet Conquest of Poland’s Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

GyániGábor. 2008. “Keleti és nyugati hatvannyolc: különbözőség és egység” [Eastern and western ‘68: difference and unity]. Mozgó Világ 34, no. 8: 2934.

HalberstamMichael. 1998. “Totalitarianism as a Problem for the Modern Conception of Politics.” Political Theory 26, no. 4: 459488.

HaleckiOskar. 1950. The Limits and Divisions of European History. London and New York: Sheed & Ward.

HalpernJoel Martin, and KideckelDavid A.. 1983. “Anthropology of Eastern Europe.” Annual Review of Anthropology 12: 377402.

HauptHeinz-Gerhard. 2001. “Comparative History.” In vol. 4 of International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, ed. SmelserNeil J. and BaltesPaul B., 397403. Amsterdam: Elseviert.

——. 2004. “Die Geschichte Europas als vergleichende Geschichtsschreibung.” Comparativ 14: 8597.

——. 2006. “Historische Komparatistik in der internationalen Geschichtsschreibung.” In Transnationale Geschichte. Themen, Tendenzen und Theorien, ed. BuddeGunilla, SebastianConrad, and JanzOliver, 137149. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

——, and KockaJürgen. 2004. “Comparative History: Methods, Aims, Problems.” In Comparison and History: Europe in Cross-National Perspective, CohenDeborah and O’ConnorMaura, 2339. New York: Routledge.

HaydenRobert, and HaydenMilica. 1992. “Orientalist Variations on the Theme ‘Balkans:’ Symbolic Geographies in Yugoslav Cultural Politics.” Slavic Review 51, no. 1: 115.

Hirschhausen, Ulrike von. 1987. Show Trials: Stalinist Purges in Eastern Europe 1948–1954. New York: Praeger.

——, and PatelKiran Klaus. 2010. “Europeanization in History: An Introduction.” In Europeanization in the Twentieth Century: Historical Approaches, ed. ConwayMartin and PatelKiran Klaus, 118. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

HornGerd-Rainer, and KenneyPadraic, eds. 2004. Transnational Moments of Change: Europe 1945, 1968, 1989. Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield.

HorváthSándor. 2004. A kapu és a határ: mindennapi Sztálinváros [The gate and the border: Everyday Stalintown]. Budapest: MTA TTI.

HuntLynn, ed. 1989. The New Cultural History. Berkeley: University of California Press.

IordachiConstantin. 2007–2008. “Reconceptualizing the Social: East Central Europe and the New Sociocultural History.” East Central Europe 34–35, nos. 1–2: 135.

——. 2012. “The Quest for Central Europe: Symbolic Geographies and Historical Regions.” In Regional and International Relations of Central Europe, ed. SabicZlatko and DrulákPetr, 4061. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.

——, and BauerkämperArnd, eds. 2013. The Collectivization of Agriculture in Communist Eastern Europe: Comparisons and Entanglements. Budapest, New York: CEU Press.

JanosAndrew C. 1982. The Politics of Backwardness in Hungary, 1825–1945. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

——. 2000. East Central Europe in the Modern World: The Politics of the Borderlands from Pre- to Postcommunism. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

JarauschKonrad H., ed. 1999. Dictatorship as Experience: Towards a Socio-Cultural History of the GDR. Oxford and New York: Berghahn Books.

——, and LindenbergerThomas. 2007. “Contours of a Critical History of Contemporary Europe: A Transnational Agenda.” In Conflicted Memories: Europeanizing Contemporary Histories, ed. JarauschKonrad and LindenbergerThomas, 120. New York, Oxford: Berghahn.

——, and SiegristHannes, eds. 1997. Amerikanisierung und Sowjetisierung in Deutschland 1945–1970. Frankfurt am Main: Campus Verlag.

JaroszDariusz. 2000. Polacy a stalinizm 1948–1956 [Poles and Stalinism 1948–1956]. Warsaw: Instytut Historii PAN.

JudtTony. 1990. “Rediscovery of Central Europe.” Daedalus 119, no. 1: 2354.

KaelbleHartmut. 1999. Der historische Vergleich. Eine Einführung zum 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt am Main: Campus Verlag.

——. 2003. “Die interdisziplinären Debatten über Vergleich und Transfer.” In Vergleich und Transfer. Komparatistik in den Sozial-, Geschichts- und Kulturwissenschaften, ed. KaelbleHartmut and SchriewerJürgen, 469493. Frankfurt am Main: Campus.

——, KockaJürgen, and ZwahrHartmut, eds. 1994. Sozialgeschichte der DDR. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.

KaschubaWolfgang. 1995. “Popular Culture and Workers’ Culture as Symbolic Orders: Comments on the Debate about the History of Culture and Everyday Life.” In The History of Everyday Life, ed. LüdtkeAlf, 169197. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

KellyCatriona. 2002. “Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Chronicles of the Quotidian in Russia and the Soviet Union.” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 3, no. 4: 631651.

KenneyPadraic. 2010. “Borders Breached: The Transnational in Eastern Europe since Solidarity.” Journal of Modern European History 8, no. 2: 179195.

KeohaneRobert O., and NyeJoseph S.. 1971. “Transnational Relations and World Politics: An Introduction.” International Organization 25, no. 3: 329349.

——. 1971b. “Transnational Relations and World Politics: A Conclusion.” International Organization 25, no. 3: 721748.

KershawIan. 1994. “Totalitarianism Revisited: Nazism and Stalinism in Comparative Perspective.” Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für deutsche Geschichte 23: 2340.

——, and LewinMoshe, eds. 1997. Nazism and Stalinism: Dictatorships in Comparison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

KiaerChristina, and NaimanEric, eds. 2006. Everyday Life in Early Soviet Russia: Taking the Revolution Inside. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

KladnikAna. 2009. “Happy Living in a New Socialist Town: Construction, Distribution, Management, and Living in Apartments in Post-War Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia.” In Urban Planning and Pursuit of Happiness, ed. SchalenbergMarc and BartetzkyArnold, 116127. Berlin: Jovis Verlag.

KleßmannChristoph. 2008. “1968 zwischen Ost und West.” In Crossing 68/89, ed. DanyelSchevando, and Kruhl, 1427.

KligmanGail. 1981. Căluş: Symbolic Transformation in Romanian Ritual. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

——. 1998. The Wedding of the Dead: Ritual, Poetics, and Popular Culture in Transylvania. Berkeley: University of California Press.

KockaJürgen. 1999. “Asymmetrical Comparison: The Case of the German Sonderweg.” History and Theory 38, no. 1: 4050.

——. 2003. “Comparison and Beyond.” History and Theory 42, no. 1: 3944.

KolářPavel. 2012. “The Party as a New Utopia: Reshaping Communist Identity after Stalinism.” Social History 37, no. 4: 402424.

KopečekMichal. 2009. Hledání ztraceného smyslu revoluce. Zrod a počátky marxistického revizionismu ve střední Evropě 1953-1960 [Quest for the revolution’s lost meaning. The origins of Marxist revisionism in Central Europe, 1953–1960]. Prague: Argo.

KotkinStephen. 1995. Magnetic Mountain: Stalinism as a Civilization. Berkeley: University of California Press.

LangsamDavid E., and PaulDavid W.. 1972. Slavic Review 31, no. 1: 136141.

LaqueurThomas W. 1990. Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

RiderLe, Jacques. 1994. La Mitteleuropa. Paris: PUF.

LebowKatherine A. 2013. Unfinished Utopia: Nowa Huta, Stalinism, and Polish Society, 1949–56. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

LepeniesWolf, ed. 2003. Entangled Histories and Negotiated Universals: Centers and Peripheries in a Changing World. Frankfurt am Main: Campus.

LewinMoshe. 1985. The Making of the Soviet System: Essays in the Social History of Interwar Russia. New York: Pantheon, 1985.

LijphartArend. 1971. “Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method.” American Political Science Review 65, no. 3: 682693.

LindenbergerThomas, and LüdtkeAlf, eds. 1995. Physische Gewalt. Studien zur Geschichte der Neuzeit. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.

LinzJuan J. 1975. “Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes.” In Handbook of Political Science, vol. 3: Macropolitical Theory, ed. GreensteinF.I. and PolsbyN.W., 175411. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

——. 2000. Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes. Boulder, CO: L. Rienner.

LüdtkeAlf. 1982. “The Historiography of Everyday Life: The Personal and the Political.” In Culture, Ideology and Politics: Essays for Eric Hobsbawm, ed. SamuelRaphael and JonesGareth Stedman, 3854. London: Routledge-Paul.

LüdtkeAlf. 1993. In Eigen-Sinn. Fabrikalltag, Arbeitererfahrungen und Politik vom Kaiserreich bis in den Faschismus. Hamburg: Ergebnisse-Verlag.

——. 1994. “Stofflichkeit, Macht-Lust und Reiz der Oberflächen: Zu den Perspektiven von Alltagsgeschichte.” In Sozialgeschichte, Alltagsgeschichte, Mikro-Historie: Eine Diskussion, eds. SchulzeWinfried, 6580. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.

LüdtkeAlf, ed. 1995. The History of Everyday Life: Reconstructing Historical Experiences and Ways of Life. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

MajtényiGyörgy. 2005. A tudomány lajtorjája: “Társadalmi mobilitás” és “új értelmiség” Magyarországon a II. világháború után [The ladders of science: “Social mobility” and “new intelligentsia” in Hungary after WWII]. Budapest: MOL-Gondolat.

MarkovićPredrag J. 1996. Beograd između Istoka I Zapada 1948–1965 [Belgrade between East and West 1948–1965]. Belgrade: Službeni list SR Jugoslavije.

MazowerMark. 2002. “Violence and the State in the 20th Century.” American Historical Review 107, no. 4: 11581178.

——. 2008. Hitler’s Empire: How the Nazi’s Ruled Europe. New York: Penguin Press.

——, ReinischJessica, and FeldmanDavid, eds. 2011. “Post-War Reconstruction in Europe: International Perspectives, 1945–1949.” Supplement, Past and Present, no. 6. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

MazurekMałgorzata. 2005. Socjalistyczny zakład pracy: Porównanie fabrycznej codzienn [Socialist workplace: A comparison of everyday life in factories]. Warsaw: Trio.

MertelsmannOlaf, ed. 2003. The Sovietization of the Baltic States, 1940–1956. Tartu: KLEIO Ajalookirjanduse Sihtasutus.

MiddellMatthias. 2000. “Kulturtransfer und Historische Komparatistik – Thesen zu ihrem Verhältnis.” Comparativ 10: 741.

MitranyDavid. 1973. The Effect of the War in Southeastern Europe. New York: H. Fertig.

MooreBarringtonJr. 1966. Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Boston: Beacon Press.

MuirEdward and Guido Ruggiero eds. 1991. Microhistory and the Lost Peoples of Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

NebřenskýZdeněk. 2011. “Die ‘Weltoffenheit’ der tschechoslowakischen und polnischen Jugend 1956-1968.” In Kulturtransfer aus Ostmitteleuropa als Herausforderung für die Zeitgeschichte Europas, Vergleichen, Verflechten, Verwirren? Europäische Geschichtsschreibung zwischen Theorie und Praxis, eds. ArndtAgnes, HäberlenJoachim C., and ReineckeChristiane, 140168. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

——. 2011b. “Die Repräsentationen studentischer Klubs in zentraleuropäischen Städten: Prag, Warschau und Bratislava in den 1960er Jahren.” Documenta Pragensia 30: 459488.

NeumannIver B. 1993Russia as Central Europe’s Constituting Other.” East European Politics and Societies 7: 349369.

——. 1999. Uses of the Other: “The East” in European Identity Formation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

NiethammerLutz ed. 1983. “Die Jahre weiß man nicht, wo man die heute hinsetzen soll”. Faschismuserfahrungen im Ruhrgebiet. Bonn: Dietz.

OsterhammelJürgen. 2001. “Transnationale Gesellschaftsgeschichte: Erweiterung oder Alternative?.” Geschichte und Gesellschaft 27: 464479.

PaulmannJohannes. 1998. “Internationaler Vergleich und interkultureller Transfer. Zwei Forschungsansätze zur europäischen Geschichte des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts.” Historische Zeitschrift 267: 649685.

PéteriGyörgy. 2004. “Nylon Curtain: Transnational and Trans-Systemic Tendencies in the Cultural Life of State-Socialist Russia and East-Central Europe.” Slavonica 10, no. 2: 112123.

——. 2008. “The Occident Within—or the Drive for Exceptionalism and Modernity.” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 9, no. 4 (Fall): 929937.

——. 2012. “Sites of Convergence: The USSR and Communist Eastern Europe at International Fairs Abroad and at Home.” Journal of Contemporary History 47, no. 1: 312.

PifferT., and ZubokV.M., eds. 2011. Società totalitarie e transizioni alla democrazia. Saggi in memoria di Victor Zaslavsky. Bologna: Il Mulino.

Puttkamer, Joachim von. 2010. Ostmitteleuropa im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Munich: Oldenbourg.

RauZbigniew. 1991. The Reemergence of Civil Society in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Boulder: Westview Press.

RevelJacques, ed. 1996. Jeux d’échelles. La micro-analyse à l’expérience. Paris: EHESS-Gallimard-Seuil.

——, and HuntLynn. 1995. Histories: French constructions of the past. New York: New Press.

RitterspornGábor Tamás. 1991. Stalinist Simplifications and Soviet Complications: Social Tensions and Political Conflicts in the USSR, 1933–1953. London: Routledge.

RobertsDavid D. 2009. “‘Political Religion’ and the Totalitarian Departures of Inter-War Europe: On the Uses and Disadvantages of an Analytical Category.” Contemporary European History 18, no. 4 (Nov.): 381414.

RobinsonWilliam I. 1998. “Beyond Nation-State Paradigms: Globalization, Sociology, and the Challenge of Transnational Studies.” Sociological Forum 13, no. 4: 561594.

RothschildJoseph. 1989. Return to Diversity: A Political History of East Central Europe since World War II. New York: Oxford University Press.

SaidEdward W. 1979. Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books.

SartoriGiovanni. 1993. “Totalitarianism, Model Mania and Learning from Error.” Journal of Theoretical Politics 5, no. 11: 522.

SaunierPierre-Yves. 2009. “Transnational.” In The Palgrave Dictionary of Transnational History, eds. IriyeAkira and SaunierPierre-Yves, 10471055. Houndmills: Palgrave.

SchöpflinGeorge. 1991. “The Political Traditions of Eastern Europe.” In Eastern Europe–Central Europe–Europe, ed. GraubardStephen R., 5994. Boulder: Westview Press.

——. 1993. Politics in Eastern Europe, 1945–1992. Oxford: Blackwell.

——, and WoodNancy, eds. 1989. In Search of Central Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

SchuhmannAnnette, ed. 2008. Vernetzte Improvisationen. Gesellschaftliche Subsysteme in Ostmitteleuropa und der DDR. Cologne, Weimar, Vienna: Böhlau.

SennAlfred Erich. 1958. “The Sovietization of the Baltic States.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 317, no. 1: 123129.

SiegelAchim, ed. 1998. The Totalitarian Paradigm after the End of Communism: Toward a Theoretical Reassessment. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

SkillingH. Gordon, and GriffithsFranklyn. 1971. Interest Groups in Soviet Politics. Princeton, N.J.: [Published for the Centre for Russian and East European Studies, University of Toronto by] Princeton University Press.

SkillingH. Gordon. 1979. “‘From Soviet Studies to Comparative Politics: The Unfinished Revolution’: A Comment.” Soviet Studies 31, no. 3: 441442.

SmithMichael Peter. 2000. Transnational Urbanism: Locating Globalization. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

SnyderTimothy. 2003. The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569–1999. New Haven: Yale University Press.

StaarRichard F. 1962. Poland, 1944–1962: The Sovietization of a Captive People. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

SunyRonald Grigor. 1994. “Revision and Retreat in the Historiography of 1917: Social History and its Critics.” Russian Review 3, no. 2: 165182.

——, and KennedyMichael D., eds. 1999. Intellectuals and the Articulation of the Nation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

SuriJeremi. 2011. “Conflict and Co-Operation in the Cold War: New Directions in Contemporary Historical Research.” Journal of Contemporary History 46, no. 1: 59.

SwainGeoffrey, and SwainNigel. 1993. Eastern Europe since 1945. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

SzűcsJenő. 1988. The Three Historical Regions of Europe: An Outline.” In KeaneJohn, ed., Civil Society and the State, 291332., London: Verso.

TherPhilipp. 2003. “Beyond the Nation: The Relational Basis of a Comparative History of Germany and Europe.” Central European History 36: 4573.

ThompsonE.P. 1963. The Making of the English Working Class. New York: Random House.

TismăneanuVladimir. 1990. In Search of Civil Society: Independent Peace Movements in the Soviet Bloc. New York: Routledge.

——. 1992. Reinventing Politics: Eastern Europe from Stalin to Havel. New York: Basic Books.

TodorovaMaria. 1997. Imagining the Balkans. New York: Oxford University Press.

TóthEszter Zsófia. 2007. Puszi Kádár Jánosnak: Munkásnők élete a Kádár-korszakban mikrotörténeti megközelítésben [A kiss to János Kádár: Lives of women workers in the Kádár period in a microhistorical perspective]. Budapest: Napvilág.

TuckerRobert C. 1967. “On the Comparative Study of Communism.” World Politics 19, no. 2: 242257.

TurnerPaul, and Pitt HadleyDavid, eds. The Anthropology of War and Peace. Hadley, MA: Bergin and Garvery.

te VeldeHenk. 2005. “Political Transfers: An Introduction” in Special Issue: Political Transfer, European Review of History 12, no. 2: 205222.

VerderyKatherine. 1991. National Ideology under Socialism: Identity and Cultural Politics in Ceauşescu’s Romania. Berkeley: University of California Press.

WernerMichael, and ZimmermannBénédicte, eds. 2004. De la comparaison à l’histoire croisée. Paris: Seuil.

WernerMichael, and ZimmermannBénédicte. 2006. “Beyond Comparison: Histoire Croisée and the Challenge of Reflexivity.” History and Theory 45, no. 1: 3050.

WolffLarry. 1994. Inventing Eastern Europe: The Map of Civilization on the Mind of the Enlightenment. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

YeohBrenda S.A., CharneyMichael W., and TongChee Kiong. 2003. Approaching Transnationalisms: Studies on Transnational Societies, Multicultural Contacts, and Imaginings of Home. Boston: Kluwer Academic.

YurchakAlexei. 2006. Everything Was Forever, Until It Was No More: The Last Soviet Generation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

ZaslavskyViktor. 2003. “The Post-Soviet Stage in the Study of Totalitarianism: New Trends and Methodological Tendencies.” Russian Social Science Review 44, no 5: 431.

ZimmermannBénédicte, DidryClaude, Michael Werner. Histoire croisée de la France et de l’Allemagne (Paris: Éd. de la MSH, 1999).

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 26 26 8
Full Text Views 4 4 4
PDF Downloads 3 3 3
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0