Land, Law and Power

The Cadastre of the French Concession in Shanghai (1849–1943)

in European Journal of East Asian Studies
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This paper explores the origin and development of the cadastre in the French Concession in Shanghai (1849–1943). The paper mainly focuses on how the cadastre functioned as an instrument of power in different periods. It argues that the cadastre originated from and was influenced by the cadastre system in France, although it evolved with its own characteristics owing to the complex political and administrative configuration that prevailed in Shanghai. It actually took more than a half-century for the French municipality to make the cadastre the only effective means and instrument for the management of land and land tax. It took several successive land surveys to reveal all the land in the French Concession. Eventually, however, the Cadastral Office in the French Concession cadastre took precedence and dispossessed the Chinese authorities of their initial power over land.

Land, Law and Power

The Cadastre of the French Concession in Shanghai (1849–1943)

in European Journal of East Asian Studies

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References

1

R.J. Kain and E. BaigentThe Cadastral Map in the Service of the State: A History of Property Mapping (Chicago: University of Chicago Press1992) p. xviii.

2

Kain and BaigentThe Cadastral Map p. xviii.

3

Peter Ekamper‘Using cadastral maps in historical demographic research: some examples from the Netherlands’History of the FamilyVol. 15 (2010) pp. 1–12.

5

Teng-ti TchangLes titres de location perpétuelle sur les concessions de Shanghai (Paris: Librairie du Recueil Sirey1940) p. 6.

6

Kain and BaigentThe Cadastral Map p. 229.

8

Qingyuan Wang‘Review of scale atlas research since the 20th century’Ancient and Modern AgricultureVol. 2 (2014) pp. 106–113.

11

Gong-su Xu and Jin-zhang Qiu‘Status of Shanghai International Settlement’ p. 200.

12

Gong-su Xu and Jin-zhang Qiu‘Status of Shanghai International Settlement’ p. 202. In Chinese cities dibao were local headmen who supervised land transactions in their respective areas.

13

Gong-su Xu and Jin-zhang Qiu‘Status of Shanghai International Settlement’ pp. 210–212.

14

C.R. Maybon and Jean FredetHistoire de la Concession française de Changhai (Paris: Librairie Plon1929) p. 162.

15

Maybon and FredetHistoire de la Concession française p. 152.

16

Maybon and FredetHistoire de la Concession française pp. 204–205.

17

Maybon and FredetHistoire de la Concession française p. 296.

18

Maybon and FredetHistoire de la Concession française p. 331.

19

Maybon and FredetHistoire de la Concession française p. 264.

20

Maybon and FredetHistoire de la Concession française p. 340.

22

Maybon and FredetHistoire de la Concession française p. 282.

23

Maybon and FredetHistoire de la Concession française p. 285.

24

Maybon and FredetHistoire de la Concession française p. 323.

28

Cadastral Plan (1881) Archives jésuites de la Province de France. See online ‘Virtual Shanghai’ www.virtualshanghai.net/Maps/Source?ID=1862 (last accessed 2 August 2015).

Figures

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    Figure 1

    The French Concession of Shanghai (1849–1943).Source: Virtual Shanghai Project: Map ID:436, http://virtualshanghai.net/Map_Bases.php?ID=436&CF=5. © Institut d’ Asie Orientale. Cartopgraphy by I. Durand

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    Figure 2a

    The first plot plan created by the Chinese Land OfficeSource: Cai Yutian (ed.) Shanghai Title Deeds (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 2005). This plot plan was named Huizhangju huizhi ershiwu bao situ dikuai tu (Plot plan of 25th bao 4th tu created by the Chinese Land Office), Vol. 11, p. 14.

  • View in gallery
    Figure 2b

    The second plot plan created by the Chinese Land OfficeSource: Cai Yutian (ed.) Shanghai Title Deeds (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 2005). This plot plan was named Huizhangju cehui dikuai tu (Plot plan created by the Chinese Land Office), Vol. 22, p. 280.

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    Figure 3

    Plot plan created by the Cadastral Office (1919)Source: Cai Yutian, Shanghai Title Deeds, Vol. 16

  • View in gallery
    Figure 4

    Map of land property in the French Concession on 30 June 1877Source: Virtual Shanghai Project: Map ID:1647, www.virtualshanghai.net/Maps/Source?ID=1647

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    Figure 5

    Cadastral maps of the French Concession (August 1881)Source: Archives Jésuites de la Province de France (Virtual Shanghai)

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    Figure 6

    French Concession cadastral map, 1900Source: Archives diplomatiques de Nantes, 635PO/B/64

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    Figure 7

    The cartography of the cadastral mapSource: SMA Ref: U38-1-1062

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    Figure 8

    One piece of the cadastral maps created by the Service du Cadastre (1931)Source: Virtual Shanghai Project: Map ID:243, www.virtualshanghai.net/Maps/Source?ID=243

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