Minorities, Citizenship and Statelessness in Europe

in European Journal of Migration and Law
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Since 1989, questions of citizenship and statelessness in Europe are once again dynamic. On the one hand, exclusionary forces have become reinvigorated, including as a result of ethno-nationalism. In addition, new forms of status have been created, severely limiting participation and inclusion rights. Minorities have been particularly subject to exclusion, with Roma and Russians affected in particular. On the other hand, regional and international lawmaking has endeavoured to counteract these forces. This article attempts to summarize these developments, with a particular focus on EU and Council of Europe law.

Minorities, Citizenship and Statelessness in Europe

in European Journal of Migration and Law



  • 3)

    H. Arendt (1958) The Origins of Totalitarianism Cleveland OH: World Publishing.

  • 11)

    European Roma Rights Centre (1998) A Pleasant Fiction: The Human Rights Situation of Roma in Macedonia Country Reports Series No. 7 Budapest: European Roma Rights Centre.

  • 21)

    See Equal Rights Trust (2010) Unravelling Anomaly: Detention Discrimination and the Protection Needs of Stateless Persons London: Equal Rights Trust.

  • 23)

    See B. Blitz & C. Sawyer (2011) Statelessness in the European Union Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • 41)

    Adopted February 1995H(1995)010 text available online at http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/minorities/1_AtGlance/PDF_H(1995)010_FCNM_ExplanReport_en.pdf.

  • 44)

    J. Bhabha (2011) Children Without a State: a Global Human Rights Challenge Cambridge MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  • 47)

    Plan International 2009. Count Every Child – the Right to Birth Registration Plan International Publications available online at http://plan-international.org/birthregistration/files/count-every-child-2009. See also B. Blitz and M. Lynch (2011) Statelessness and Citizenship Edward Elgar Publishing.

  • 56)

    Ruling in June 2008the Court set a time limit of nine months i.e. to March 2009 to amend Austrian law to provide a right to apply (“Antragsrecht”) for a permit for humanitarian reasons. Details are available online at http://www.oe24.at/zeitung/oesterreich/politik/article323890.ece (accessed 8 October 2008).

  • 59)

    See C. Cahn (2003) ‘Die Politik der Abschiebung: Europa under der Versuch einer Lenkung der Roma’ in: Jahrbuch zur Organisation fur Sicherheit und Zusammenarbeit in Europa (OSZE) Band 9 Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft p. 231.

  • 66)

    See Paul Hockenos (2004) Homeland Calling: Exile Patriotism and the Balkan Wars Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press.

  • 69)

    GISTI et al. (2008) Plainte contre la France pour violations du droit communautaire en matière de libre circulation des personnes Paris: Gisti pp. 27–29.

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