Drawing the Geographic Boundaries of Expulsion and Readmission in Greece: The Dynamics of an Elusive Process

In: European Journal of Migration and Law
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  • 1 Würzburg Germany mgregou@hotmail.com

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Probing into the dynamics of expulsion and readmission in Greece, this article traces the growing importance of the processes in the shifting geography of irregular migration in the country. It presents and interprets the relevant data that amply indicate the increasing irregular migrant inflows from Asian and African countries of origin, accompanied by the waning of the respective from Albania, a former predominant migrant country of origin. This article lays particular emphasis on the mounting significance of Turkey as gate of irregular entry. In this respect, the implementation of expulsion and readmission has been addressed as pertinent not exclusively to migration control, but also to foreign policy contingencies and the political will of the actors involved in the process. Feedback has been provided as to the prospects of a viable readmission, configured in the interaction and co-operation among the main actors, Greece, Turkey and the eu.

  • 2

    Ibid., pp. 22–23.

  • 3

    J.-P. Cassarino (2010), Readmission Policy in the European Union, Brussels: European Parliament, Directorate General for Internal Policies, Policy Department C: Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs, Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs, pp. 12–13.

  • 7

    J. Cavounidis (2008), ‘New elements of Greek policies concerning irregular migrants’, in: Council of Europe, Policies on irregular immigrants, Vol. ii, Strasbourg: Council of Europe, pp. 47–64; J. Cavounidis, ‘Migration in Southern Europe and the Case of Greece’, 40 International Migration (2002) 45–70; R. Fakiolas, ‘Regularising Undocumented Immigrants in Greece: Procedures and Effects’, 29 Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies (2003) 535–561; N. Glytsos, ‘Stepping from Illegality to Legality and advancing towards integration: the case of immigrants in Greece’, 39 International Migration Review (2005) 819–840; C. Kanellopoulos, M. Gregou and Ath. Petralias (2006), Illegal Immigrants in Greece: State Approaches, their Profile and Social Situation, Athens: European Migration Network and Centre for Planning and Economic Research.

  • 8

    A. Triantafyllidou and Th. Maroukis (2012), Migrant Smuggling: Irregular Migration from Asia and Africa to Europe, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; Immigration in Greece of 21st Century, Athens: Kritiki (in Greek); C. Kanellopoulos, M. Gregou and Ath. Petralias (2009), Size, Profile and Labour Market Analysis of Immigration in Greece, Athens: Centre of Planning and Economic Research.

  • 14

    Kanellopoulos, Gregou and Petralias (2009), pp. 84–85.

  • 15

    G. Tapinos (1999), ‘Clandestine Immigration: Economic and Political Issues’, in: oecd, Trends in International Migration, Annual Report, sopemi, Paris: oecd.

  • 16

    Kanellopoulos, Gregou and Petralias (2006), p. 34; Frontex (2013), Annual Risk Analysis, Warsaw: Frontex, p. 10.

  • 21

    Frontex (2012), Annual Risk Analysis, Warsaw: Frontex, p. 19.

  • 22

    European Asylum Office (2012), Annual Report, Valetta: easo, p. 14.

  • 25

    Ibid., p. 3.

  • 26

    European Commission (2007), Country Strategy Paper, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, 2007–2013,Brussels: European Commission; unhcr (2013), Country Operations Profile-Afghanistan, Geneva: unhcr.

  • 32

    European Commission (2007), Report on the Evaluation of the Dublin System, sec (2007) 742, Brussels: European Commission, p. 15.

  • 35

    Asylum Service (2013), Statistical Data on Asylum, Athens: Ministry of Citizen Protection.

  • 37

    Asylum Service (2013), Statistical Data on Asylum, Athens: Ministry of Citizen Protection, available online at http://www.yptp.gr/images/stories//2014/asylo/asylum_statisticaldata2013_gr.pdf.

  • 41

    C. Freeman (2012), ‘Budget airline tickets fuel illegal immigration’, The Telegraph, 21 October 2013; Economist, ‘The Crossing Point’, 3 March 2012.

  • 42

    House of Commons (2011), Implications for the Justice and Home Affairs area of the accession of Turkey to the European Union, Tenth Report of Session 2010–12, London: The Stationary Office, p.20.

  • 43

    Frontex (2010), Annual Risk Analysis, Warsaw: Frontex, pp. 12, 18; Frontex (2011), Annual Risk Analysis, Warsaw: Frontex, p. 15.

  • 45

    Frontex (2013), Annual Risk Analysis, Warsaw: Frontex.

  • 46

    C. Kanellopoulos and M. Gregou (2006), Greek Country Report on Return Migration, Athens: European Migration Network and Centre for Planning and Economic Research, p. 12; Kanellopoulos, Gregou andPetralias 2009, pp. 113–116.

  • 50

    International Crisis Group (2003), ‘Albania: State of the Nation’, Europe Report No. 140, 11 March.

  • 52

    C. Kanellopoulos and M. Gregou (2006), Greek Country Report on Return Migration, Athens: European Migration Network and Centre for Planning and Economic Research.

  • 54

    House of Commons (2011), Implications for the Justice and Home Affairs area of the accession of Turkey to the European Union, London: The Stationary Office, p. 27.

  • 58

    Cassarino (2010), p. 26.

  • 60

    Council Doc 7990/02, 16 April 2002, paragraph 2 (ii).

  • 61

    N. Coleman (2009), European Readmission Policy: Third Country Interests and Refugee Rights, Leiden: Brill, pp. 180–181; K. Kirişci (2004), ‘Reconciling refugee protection with efforts to combat irregular migration: the case of Turkey and the European Union’, Global Migration Perspectives 11, Geneva: gcim, p. 7.

  • 67

    G. Smith (2013), Afghan Forces cannot go it alone, Brussels: International Crisis Group.

  • 68

    European Commission (2013), Iraq Crisis, Humanitarian Implementation Plan (hip), echo/-me/bud/2013/91000, Brussels: European Commission.

  • 69

    International Crisis Group (2014), Crisis Watch, No. 127, March 1; Ph. Fargues and Ch. Fandrich (2012), The European Response to the Syrian Refugee Crisis – What next?, Research Report 2012/14, Florence: Migration Policy Centre.

  • 75

    G. Tsakiris (2009), ‘Mistrust for Turkey and Relation with frontex’, Eleytherotypia (3 November) (in Greek); I. Iliadi (2010), ‘Backdoor via frontex to Aegean’, Ethnos (12 January) (in Greek).

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