Political actors in the European Union and in the eu member states have arrived to maintain that managed circular migration can generate benefits both for the destination countries and for the countries of origin of the migrants. Despite the fact that Germany so far has barely engaged in fostering circular migration through distinct programmes, a not inconsiderable share of foreigners from third countries living in Germany today can be viewed as circular migrants. This paper takes an inventory of the extent and characteristics of such spontaneous back-and-forth cross border movements by providing a specific, clear-cut definition for circular migration and thus analysing stock data on third country nationals residing in Germany. Furthermore, we scrutinise the German legal framework with a view to its propensity to encourage patterns of circular migration.
D.R. Agunias (2006), From Zero-Sum to a Win-Win Scenario? Literature review on Circular Migration, Washington, dc: Migration Policy Institute; H. De Haas (2006), Turning the tide? Why ‘development instead of migration’ policies are bound to fail, Working Paper 2, Oxford: International Migration Institute, University of Oxford; H. De Haas and S. Vezzoli (2010), Migration and development. Lessons from the Mexico-us and Morocco-eu experiences, Working Paper 22, Oxford: International Migration Institute, University of Oxford; Global Commission on International Migration (2005), Migration in an interconnected world: New directions for action, Report of the Global Commission on International Migration, Geneva: gcim; R. Skeldon, ‘Going Round in Circles: Circular Migration, Poverty Alleviation and Marginality’, 50 International Migration (2010) 43–60.
K. Newland (2009), Circular Migration and Human Development, Human Development Research Paper 2009/42, New York, ny: United Nations Development Programme, p. 15f.
Skeldon, supra note 1.
S. Angenendt (2014), Entwicklungspolitische Perspektiven temporärer und zirkulärer Migration. swp-Studie 13, Berlin: Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik.
T. Fakhoury (2009), Scenarios of Circular Migration in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Region: Some conceptual and policy-making considerations, in: P. Fargues (Ed.), Mediterranean Migration, 2008–2009 Report, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, San Domenico di Fiesole: European University Institute, pp. 451–468, at p. 453.
D.R. Agunias and K. Newland (2007), Circular Migration and Development: Trends, Policy Routes, and Ways Forward, mpi Policy Brief April 2007, Washington, dc: Migration Policy Institute.
P. Fargues (2008), Circular Migration: Is it relevant for the south and east of the Mediterranean?, carim Analytic and Synthetic Notes 40, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, San Domenico di Fiesole: European University Institute.
Ibid., p. 2.
Statens Offentliga Utredningar (2011), Cirkulär migration och utveckling – förslag och framåtblick, Slutbetänkande av Kommittén för cirkulär migration och utveckling (sou 2011: 28), Stockholm, p. 20ff.
Zapata-Barrero et al., supra note 19, p. 7.
Commission of the European Communities (2002), Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament – Integrating Migration Issues in the European Union’s Relations with Third Countries. com(2002) 703 final, p. 16.
Commission of the European Communities (2005). Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, The European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – Migration and Development: Some Concrete Orientations. com(2005) 390 final, pp. 25–30.
C. Gabriel (2014), Managed Migration and the Temporary Labour Fix, in: L. Vosko, V. Preston; R. Latham (Eds.), Liberating Temporariness? Migration, Work, and Citizenship in an Age of Insecurity, Montreal, qc: McGill-Queen’s University Press, pp. 99–125.
Commission of the European Communities (2007), Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on circular migration and mobility partnerships between the European Union and third countries. com(2007) 248 final.
J.-P. Cassarino (2008), Patterns of Circular Migration in the Euro-Mediterranean Area: Implications for Policy-Making, carim Analytic and Synthetic Notes 29, San Domenico di Fiesole: European University Institute, p. 9. Critically, human rights and migrant organisations as well as parliaments have taken firm points on the conceptually weak or unsolved issues surrounding these policy proposals; see for instance the European Parliament’s 2006 resolution on development and migration, which emphasises the necessity to accompany circular migration with integration measures for both outgoing and returning migrants and to boost the number of countries linked by agreements that guarantee for the transferability of pensions and social security benefits, cf. European Parliament (2006) Development and Migration. European Parliament resolution of development and migration, Doc. 2005/2244(ini), P6_ta(2006)0319, Nos. 27, 28, and 68.
J. Schneider (2012), Assisted Return and Reintegration: Complex National Policy Domains or Laggard Responses in eu Migration Policy?, in: C. Gortazar, M.-C. Parra, B. Segaert and C. Timmerman (Eds.), European Migration and Asylum Policies: Coherence or Contradiction? An Interdisciplinary Evaluation of the eu Programmes of Tampere (1999), The Hague (2004), Stockholm (2009), Brussels: Bruylant, pp. 261–273.
J.-P. Cassarino (2013), The Drive for Securitized Temporariness, in: A. Triandafyllidou (Ed.), Circular Migration between Europe and its Neighborhood. Choice or Necessity?, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 22–41.
Commission of the European Communities (2010), Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and the Council on the conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals for the purposes of seasonal employment. com(2010) 379 final.
S. Angenendt (2014), Triple-Win Migration – Challenges and Opportunities. Migration Strategy Group on Global Competitiveness Framework Paper, Berlin: German Marshall Fund of the United States and Robert Bosch Stiftung, pp. 11f.
Cf., Fakhoury, supra note 10, p. 451.
Cf., A. Triandafyllidou (2013), Circular Migration: Introductory Remarks, in: A. Triandafyllidou (Ed.), Circular Migration between Europe and its Neighborhood. Choice or Necessity?, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 1–21, at p. 12.
Statens Offentliga Utredningar (2010), Cirkulär migration och utveckling – kartlägg-ning av cirkulära rörelsemönster och diskussion om hur migrationens utvecklingspotential kan främjas. Delbetänkande av Kommittén för cirkulär migration och utveckling (sou 2010:40). Stockholm, p. 35, 67.
Constant and Zimmermann, supra note 9, pp. 7–21.
Statens Offentliga Utredningar, supra note 18, p. 71; K. Newland (2009), The Paradox of Permanency: An Incentive-based Approach to Circular Migration Policy in the European Union, Paper presented at the Swedish eu Presidency Meeting on Labour Migration and its Development Potential in the Age of Mobility, Malmö, Sweden, October 15–16, 2009.
Statens Offentliga Utredningar, supra note 18, p. 44.
European Parliament, supra note 26.
Zerger, supra note 44, p. 4.
D. Frings (2008), Sozialrecht für Zuwanderer, Baden-Baden: Nomos, p. 107ff.
Frings, supra note 50, p. 97.
Cf., Statens Offentliga Utredningar, supra note 35, p. 39; S. Vertovec (2007), Circular Migration: the way forward in global policy?, International Migration Institute Working Paper 4/2007, Oxford: University of Oxford, p. 3.
Constant and Zimmermann, supra note 9, p. 15, 17.
On 3 July2014, the German Parliament adopted legislation that allows young people of migrant background, who were raised in Germany and who are in possession of dual citizenship, to keep both nationalities upon becoming of legal age. Hitherto, these young adults would have to opt for one nationality at age 23, the latest.
Bundesministerium des Innern (2014), Migrationsbericht des Bundesamtes für Migration und Flüchtlinge im Auftrag der Bundesregierung – Migrationsbericht 2012, Berlin, p. 156.
G. Hugo (2013), What We Know About Circular Migration and Enhanced Mobility?, mpi Policy Brief September 2013, Washington, dc: Migration Policy Institute.