This article critically assesses the effectiveness of third-country nationals’ social rights protection in the eu following the adoption of Directive 2011/98/eu (‘the Single Permit Directive’). This instrument establishes a single permit for work and residence and sets up a common set of rights for third-country workers legally residing in a Member State. This article argues that despite being an important instrument allowing for a better protection of social rights of third-country nationals, the directive still reveals significant inconsistencies. First, due to difficult negotiations at the Council, the final text of the directive maintains the fragmented approach to legal immigration, excluding several categories of third-country nationals from its personal scope. Second, it also allows Member States the opportunity to impose important restrictions on social rights while implementing the directive. Finally, these restrictions can have considerable implications for the integration of immigrants in the host Member State. Accordingly, the argument is advanced that in reality the protection of third-country workers’ social rights in the eu still largely depends on the Member States’ political will.
European Commission (2014) Report on the implementation of the Global Approach to Migration and Mobility 2012–2013 (Communication) com(2014) 96 final; See also S. Carrera (2007) The eu Border Management Strategy Centre for European Policy Studies Working paper No. 261/March Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies.
European Council (1999) Tampere Summit conclusions available online at http://www.europarl.europa.eu/summits/tam_en.htm.
European Commission (2007) Proposal for a Council Directive on a single application procedure for a single permit for Non-eu Member Country nationals to reside and work in the territory of a Member State and on a common set of rights for Non-eu Member Country workers legally residing in a Member Statecom(2007) 638 final.
See S. Carrera (2007) Building a Common Policy on Labour Immigration. Towards a Comprehensive and Global Approach in the eu?ceps working document 256 available online at http://www.ceps.be (for a general overview of the topic).
European Commissionsupra note 16 at explanatory memorandum section 1.
European Commission (2010) Europe 2020. A strategy for smart sustainable and inclusive growth (Communication) com(2010) 2020 final; European Commission (2014) Taking stock of the Europe 2020. A strategy for smart sustainable and inclusive growth (Communication) com(2014) 130 final.
See generally K. Groenendijk (2005) ‘Access of third-country nationals to employment under the new ec migration law’ in: F. Julien-Laferrière H. Labayle and O. Edstrom (eds) La politique européenne d’immigration et d’asile: bilan critique cinq ans après le Traité d’Amsterdam Brussels: Bruylant p. 141; Guild and Staples (2003) supra note 5 at 171ff.
M. Ruhs (2013) The Price of Rights. Regulating International Labour Migration Oxford: Oxford University Press at p. 49.
Bridget Anderson (2013) Us & Them? The Dangerous Politics of Immigration Control Oxford: Oxford University Press at p. 3.
See Ruhs and Andersonsupra note 2 at p. 41 (discussing the implications of staff shortage in immigration policy).
Article 3(5) Regulation 883/2004supra note 67.
Article 1 Regulation 859/2003supra note 71.
See generally M. Klatt and M. Meister (2012) The Constitutional Structure of Proportionality Oxford: Oxford University Press; A. Legg (2012) The Margin of Appreciation in International Human Rights Law: Deference and Proportionality Oxford: Oxford University Press; K. Möller Proportionality and Rights Inflationlse Law Society and Economy Working Papers 17/2013 available online at www.lse.ac.uk/collections/law/wps/wps.htm.
See J.-F. Flauss (2004) ‘Actualité de la Convention Européenne des Droits de l’Homme’ Actualité Juridique du Droit Administratif 537 (arguing that the scope of the echr has been extended towards the inclusion of social rights).
See F. Sudre (2011) Droit européen et international des droits de l’homme 10eme edn Paris: puf at 659 (arguing that the scope of application of the echr has been extended towards the indirect protection of foreigners – protection par ricochet in the original version)
International Labour Office (2010) International Labour Migration: A Rights-Based Approach available online at www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/migrant/download/rights_based_approach.pdf; iom (2013) International Migration Health and Human Rights available online at http://publications.iom.int/bookstore/free/IOM_UNHCHR_EN_web.pdf at 12; B. Ndiaye (2011) Addressing Irregular Migration Through a Human Rights Based Approach Talk at the Global Forum on Migration and Development available online at http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/MHR/StatementBN_HRBA_Irregular_Migration.pdf.
Council of the European Unionsupra note 32 at 6.
European Commission (2011) European Agenda for the Integration of Third-Country Nationals (Communication) com (2011)455 final; Council of the euCommon Basic Principles for Immigrant Integration Policy in the European Union no 14615/04.
K. Banting and W. Kymlicka (2006) Multiculturalism and the Welfare State: Recognition and Redistribution in Contemporary Democracies Oxford: Oxford University Press; C. Joppke and S. Lukes (eds) (1999) Multicultural Questions Oxford: Oxford University Press; T. Sumino ‘Does Immigration Erode the Multicultural Welfare State? A Cross-National Multilevel Analysis in 19 oecd Member States’ 3 Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies (2014) 436–455.
European Commissionsupra note 104 at 3.
European Commission (2013) 4th Annual Report on Immigration and Asylum (2012) (Communication) com (2013)422 final at chapter iii-4 8.
The Stockholm Programmesupra note 15; European Commission supra note 104.
L. Solivetti (2010) Immigration Social Integration and Crime. A cross-national approach London: Routledge at 132.
Solivettisupra note 112 at 132.
D. Kostakopoulou (2008) The Future Governance of Citizenship Cambridge: Cambridge University Press at 34.
See R. van Oers (2013) Deserving Citizenship. Citizenship Tests in Germany the Netherlands and the United Kingdom Leiden: Brill/Nijhoff; K. Groenendijk (2012) ‘Integration of Immigrants in the eu: the Old or the New Way?’ in: Y. Pascouau and T. Strik (eds) Which Integration Policies for Migrants? Interaction between eu and its Member States Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publishers pp. 3–14.
European Commissionsupra note 104.
Kostakopoulousupra note 121 at 1.
Andersonsupra note 47.
D. Held (1991) ‘Between state and civil society: Citizenship’ in G. Andrews (ed.) Citizenship London: Lawrence and Wishart p. 20.
T.H. Marshall (1950) Citizenship and Social Class and Other Essays Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Marshallsupra note 137.
See especially B.S. Turner (1993) Citizenship and Social Theory London: Sage; P. Taylor-Gooby (2008) Reframing Social Citizenship Oxford: Oxford University Press.