Is Green Better than Blue? The Danish jha Opt-out and the Unilateral Attempt to Attract Highly Skilled Labour

in European Journal of Migration and Law
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In 20–30 years Denmark will, just like the rest of the eu, be in need of an increasing number of highly skilled workers from outside the eu to sustain its welfare society. While the eu has adopted a common Blue Card aiming at making it possible for foreign workers to live and work in most of the eu, Denmark has, due to its opt-out in Justice and Home Affairs, chosen its own Green Card Scheme. This article looks into this choice and compares the recent Danish attempt to attract high skilled workers with the Blue Card directive. It analyses the differences and similarities between the two schemes and investigates why initiatives to attract highly skilled workers have not been successful at either the Danish nor the European level.

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References

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3

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5

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7

Rambøll (2012), Analyse til Styrelsen for Fastholdelse og Rekruttering. Arbejdsindvandring i Danmark, p. 5.

11

S.G. Hansen (2013), ‘Stort mis-match mellem udbud og efterspørgsel på universitetsuddannede’, Dansk Industri Indsigt, pp. 1–3.

16

C.A. Seidelin (2011), Højtuddannede udlændinge øger produktiviteten og væksten i Danmark, Confederation of Danish Industry, p. 1.

17

Ibid., p. 2.

19

Ibid., p. 20.

23

Act no. 365 of 6 June 2002.

24

Government, Regeringen (2002), På vej mod en ny integrationspolitik.

27

See also the critique by Albertsen, K.B. (2012a), ‘Hvor er Danmarks migrationspolitiske ambitioner?’, Berlingske (10 May 2012).

28

L 152 of 28 February 2002, remarks on p. 37, cf., P. Starup (2012), Grundlæggende udlændingeret i, Copenhagen: Jurist- og Økonomforbundets Forlag, at p. 160.

30

Government, Regeringen (2006), Fremtidens velstand og velfærd. Velfærdsreformer og investeringer i fremtiden.

34

Starup (2012), at 255.

35

Government, Regeringen (2007), Regeringens plan for international rekruttering. Danmark – et godt sted at arbejde.

37

Ministry of Finance, Finansministeriet (2008), Pressemeddelelse 28 February 2008 – Aftale om en jobplan. The greencard scheme was expanded, along with the other job schemes put in place to attract foreign labour via act no. 486 of 17 June 2008 (Ændring af udlændingeloven. Rekruttering af udenlandsk arbejdskraft m.v.).

38

Ministry of Finance, Finansministeriet (2008), Pressemeddelelse 28 February 2008 – Aftale om en jobplan, p. 9.

40

Government, Regeringen (2012), Danmark i arbejde – Udfordringer for dansk økonomi mod 2020, at 102.

42

Government, Regeringen (2012), at 103.

46

Government, Regeringen (2012), at 6.

47

Rambøll (2010), Integrationsministeriet undersøgelse af greencardordningen, p. 10: in this study 59.3% of the respondents were undertaking unskilled jobs (the questionnaire was dealt among holders of Green Cards in 2008–2009).

49

Agreement of 26 June 2014, Aftale om en reform af international rekruttering, Lettere adgang til højt kvalificeret arbejdskraft.

50

Lovforslag no. 61 af 12 November 2014, Forslag til lov om ændring af udlændingeloven, integrationsloven og lov om Det Centrale Personregister (Reform af international rekruttering m.v.) Fremsat den 12. november 2014 af beskæftigelsesministeren (Henrik Dam Kristensen).

53

A. Bay-Larsen (2015), ‘Eksperter: Frygten for udlændingespøgelset hæmmer Danmarks konkurrenceevne’, Ugebrevet A4.

54

Government, Regeringen (2015), Regeringsgrundlaget. Sammen for fremtiden, Juni 2015, p. 13.

55

European Commission (2005), Communication from the Commission, Policy Plan on Legal Migration, com(2005) 669 final, 21 December 2005, Brussels.

59

K.B. Albertsen (2012b), Europeanising labour migration policies and pursuing national objectives, Danish Institute for International Studies (diis) Policy Briefs, July 2012.

60

Cerna (2013a), at 16.

62

Cerna (2013a), ibid.

63

S. Peers (2009), ‘Legislative Update: ec Immigration and Asylum Law Attracting and Deterring Labour Migration: The Blue Card and Employer Sanctions Directive’, 11 European Journal of Migration and Law (2009) 387–426, at 392 and 407.

64

K. Eisele (2013), Why come here if I can go there? Assessing the ‘Attractiveness’ of the eu’s Blue Card Directive for ‘Highly Qualified’ Immigrants, neujobs Working Paper No. D18.2/September 2013, San Domenico di Fiesole: Centre for European Policy Studies; P. Bury (Kość) (2013), Domestic adaptation and modalities of implementation of the Blue Card directive, Paper presented at the European Consortium for Political Research 7th General Conference. 4–7 September 2013, Bordeaux, France.

67

S. Kalantaryan and I. Martin (2015), ‘Reforming the eu Blue Card as a Labour Migration Tool?’, Policy Brief 2015/8, Florence: Migration Policy Centre.

69

See I. Martin and A. Venturini (2015), ‘A Comprehensive Labour Market Approach to eu Labour Migration Policy’, Migration Policy Centre eui, Policy Brief 2015/7, Florence: Migration Policy Centre, at p. 3.

74

S. Stubager and M. Flink, ‘Kloge udlændinge dumper Danmark’, Jyllands-Posten (2 November 2013).

75

M.B. Broberg, ‘Ordning for udenlandsk arbejdskraft har fejlet’, Jyllands-Posten (10 May 2013).

76

Broberg (2013), ibid.

77

J.B. Larsen (2013), ‘Røde partier vil justere greencard-ordning’, Berlingske Nyhedsbureau.

81

Rambøll (2010), Integrationsministeriet undersøgelse af greencardordningen.

84

The Danish Immigration Service (2014), Tal og fakta på udlændingeområdet 2013, Forår 2014, p. 66.

85

European Commission (2014), Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the implementation of Directive 2009/50/ec on the conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals for the purpose of highly qualified employment, com(2014) 287 final, 22 May 2014, Brussels, p. 11.

86

European Commission (2014), ibid., p. 10.

87

European Commission (2015), Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, A European Agenda on Migration, com(2015) 240 final, Brussels 13 May 2015, p. 15.

88

Foresight (2011), Migration and Global Environmental Change. Final Project Report, London: The Government Office for Science.

Figures

  • The Aliens Act – Changes in the legislation on hsw.
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  • Comparison of the most important features of the eu Blue Card and the Danish Green Card.
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