In Deep Water: Towards a Greater Commitment for Human Rights in Sea Operations Coordinated by Frontex?

in European Journal of Migration and Law
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Frontex and the eu Member States have been criticised for not carrying out sea surveillance operations coordinated by the Agency in full compliance with human rights obligations. While Frontex and the Member States are clearly obliged to respect human rights when carrying out maritime surveillance operations within their territorial waters and contiguous zone, the question is much more complex on the high seas and especially in the territorial waters of a third country. Therefore, the most problematic question in Frontex operations is the extraterritorial application of human rights obligations of the eu and its Member States. The aim of this paper is to determine to what extent Regulation 656/2014 has introduced a clear regulation of the interception and rescue operations coordinated by Frontex while at the same time fully respecting fundamental rights and, in particular, the principle of non-refoulement.

In Deep Water: Towards a Greater Commitment for Human Rights in Sea Operations Coordinated by Frontex?

in European Journal of Migration and Law

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References

  • 2

    Judgment of 5 September 2012European Parliament v. Council C-355/10.

  • 4

    C-355/10supra note 2 paras 84 and 90.

  • 6

    See A. Baldaccini (2007) ‘The External Dimension of the eu’s Asylum and Immigration Policies: Old Concerns and New Approaches’ in: A. Baldaccini E. Guild and H. Toner (eds) Whose Freedom Security and Justice?eu Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy Oxford: Hart p. 277.

  • 7

    See T. Strik (2014) The ‘left-to-die boat’: actions and reactions Doc. 13532 Strasbourg: Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe 9 June 2014; T. Strik (2012) Lives lost in the Mediterranean Sea: who is responsible? Doc. 12895 Strasbourg: Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe 29 March 2012.

  • 12

    Recital 1 of Regulation No. 656/2014supra note 1.

  • 16

    Recital 4 of Regulation No. 656/2014supra note 1.

  • 17

    European Commission (2014) ‘ “Frontex Joint Operation Triton” – concerted efforts to manage migration in the Central Mediterranean’ 7 October 2014.

  • 18

    S. Carrera & L. Den Hertog (2015) Whose Mare? Rule of law challenges in the field of European border surveillance in the Mediterraneanceps Paper No. 79 Brussels: ceps p. 12.

  • 19

    C-355/10supra note 2 para. 50.

  • 25

    Article 6 of Regulation No. 656/2014supra note 1.

  • 29

    Article 8 of Regulation No. 656/2014supra note 1.

  • 30

    Article 7(1) of Regulation No. 656/2014supra note 1.

  • 31

    Article 7(2) of Regulation No. 656/2014supra note 1.

  • 33

    European Commissionsupra note 8.

  • 39

    S. Carrera and L. Den Hertog (2015) Whose Mare? Rule of law challenges in the field of European border surveillance in the Mediterraneanceps Paper No. 79 Brussels: ceps p. 12.

  • 40

    Recital 15 of Regulation 656/2014supra note 1.

  • 41

    Article 9 of Regulation No. 656/2014supra note 1.

  • 44

    T. Strik (2014) The ‘left-to-die boat’: actions and reactions Doc. 13532 9 June 2014 Strasbourg: Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe p. 14.

  • 46

    Article 10 of Regulation No. 656/2014supra note 1.

  • 65

    See Papastavridissupra note 35 p. 105.

  • 66

    Article 4(2) of Regulation No. 656/2014supra note 1.

  • 67

    Article 4(3) of Regulation No. 656/2014supra note 1.

  • 69

    See S. Peers (2014) ‘New eu rules on maritime surveillance: will they stop the deaths and push-backs in the Mediterranean?’ Statewatch.

  • 73

    See Carrera and Den Hertogsupra note 18 pp. 11–12.

  • 75

    Article 13(2) of Regulation No. 656/2014supra note 1.

  • 79

    Peerssupra note 69.

  • 81

    M. Cederbratt (2013) Frontex: human rights responsibilities Doc. 13161 8 April 2013 Strasbourg: Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe.

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