Ars simia naturae: The Animal as Mediator and Alter Ego of the Artist in the Renaissance

in Explorations in Renaissance Culture
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Past research on animals in Renaissance art has indicated their functions as signifiers of human characteristics. This study demonstrates stages in developments of Renaissance art that illustrate transitions from anthropocentric to theriocentric approaches in animal symbolism, where animals are perceived and valued in their own right. Traditional negative animal symbolism was not relinquished, but new types of animal depictions have testified to new attitudes. Iconography of the dog and the ape, for example, represents two issues relating to human-animal relationships in the Renaissance. Changing conceptions of the dog, its function in artistic narrative, as related to the artist, his self-image and awareness of the spectator, are examined. The ape became a metaphor of the universal artist and clever imitator of nature. While late-sixteenth- and seventeenth-century illustrations referring to artistic imitatio were harshly judicial, the idea of animals as mediators is demonstrated by the artist who tends not only to empathize with animals but also to identify with them.

Sections

References

Aelian . On the Characteristics of Animals. Trans. Schonfield A.F. . 3 vols. Cambridge, ma: Harvard U P, 1958.

Aikema Bernard . Jacopo Bassano and His Public: Moralizing Pictures in an Age of Reform, ca. 1535–1600. Princeton, nj: Princeton U P, 1996.

Alberti Leon Battista . On Painting and Sculpture. Ed. and Grayson. Trans. C. London: Phaidon, 1972.

Alberti Leon Battista . On Painting: A New Translation and Critical Edition, Book iii. Trans. Sinisgalli. Rocco Cambridge, uk: Cambridge U P, 2013.

Alciato Andrea . Emblematum liber. Augsburg, Heinrich Steyner, 1531.

Aldrovandi Ulisse . De quadrupedibus digitatis vivparis libri tres et de quadrupedibus digitatis oviparis libri duo. Bologna: Sebastian Bonhommium, 1645.

Arbel Benjamin . “The Renaissance Transformation of Animal Meaning: From Petrarch to Montaigne.” Making Animal Meaning. Ed. Kalof Linda and Georgina Montgomery . East Lansing: Michigan State U P, 2011. 5980.

Asimov Isaac . Asimov’s Guide to Shakespeare. 2 vols. Garden City, ny 1970, San Antonio, tx, 2003. www.allshakespeareproject.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/asimovs-guide-to-shakespeare-volume-ii-the-english-plays1.pdf. Accessed October 13, 2017.

Barker William , ed. The Adages of Erasmus. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 2001.

Baumlin James S. and Watson Barbara . “Rational Dogs and Spiritual Fools: The Renaissance Iconography of ‘Natural’ Reason vs. Divine Guidance in German Artwork and English Poetry.” Explorations in Renaissance Culture 30 (2004): 197230.

Bembo Pietro . Lyric Poetry: Etna. Ed. and trans. by Chatfield Mary P. , I. Tatti Renaissance Library 18, Cambridge, ma: Harvard U P, 2005, #38.

Bobis Laurence . Les neuf vies du chat. Paris: Gallimard, 1991.

Boccaccio Giovanni . Genealogia deorum gentilium. Reprint of Venice, 1494. New York: Garland, 1976.

Boccaccio Giovanni . Boccaccio on Poetry. Trans. and ed. Grosvenor. Charles Princeton: Princeton U P, 1930.

Bücheler Franz . Carmina Latina epigraphica. Ed. Lommatsch. E. Leipzig: B.G. Teubner, 1982.

Burckhardt Jacob . Italian Renaissance Painting According to Genre. Trans. Britt D. and Beamish. C. Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute, 2005.

Canova Andrea. Le biblioteche dei Gonzaga della seconda metà del Quattrocento.” In Principi e signori, Le biblioteche nella seconda metà del Quattrocento. Atti del Convegno: Urbino, 2008. 3966.

Carron Linda . “Monkey Business, The Puzzle of Rosso’s Ape.” Source 13.2 (1994): 2530.

Cohen Simona . “Andrea del Sarto’s ‘Madonna of the Harpies’ and the Human-Animal Hybrid in the Renaissance.” Apollo (2004): 3845.

Cohen Simona . Animals as Disguised Symbols in Renaissance Art. Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2008.

Cohen Simona . “Animals in the Paintings of Titian; a Key to Hidden Meanings.” Gazette des beaux-arts 135 (1988): 183213.

Cohen Simona . “Dogs the Religious Paintings of Tintoretto.” Iconographicaix (2010): 89100.

Cohen Simona . “The Animal Triad of Capital Sins in Franciscan Iconography.Ikon, Journal of Iconographic Studies 3 (2010): 18998.

Cornarius Janus . Selecta epigrammata Graeca Latine versa, ex septem Epigrammatum Graecorum libris. Basel, 1529.

Culwell Lori M. The Role of Clown in Shakespeare’s Theatre.” (Formerly found online at www.ws.bowiestate.edu/archives/files/index.html).

Cuneo Pia , ed. Animals and Early Modern Identity. Farnham: Ashgate, 2014.

Eisler Colin . Dürer’s Animals. London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991.

Erasmus. Collected Works of Erasmus: Ciceronianus. Vol. 28. Ed. Levi. A.H.T. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1986.

Floridi Luciano . Sextus Empiricus, The Transmission and Recovery of Pyrrhonism. Oxford: Oxford U P, 2002.

Fortini Brown Patricia . “Carpaccio’s St. Augustine in His Study: A Portrait Within a Portrait.” In Augustine in Iconography: History and Legend. Ed. Schnaubelt J.C. & Van Fleteren. F. New York: Peter Lang, Inc., 1999. 50737.

Francis A.L. and Tatum H.F. . Martial’s Epigrams, Translations and Imitations. Cambridge: Cambridge U P, 2014.

Fudge Erica . Brutal Reasoning, Animals, Rationality and Humanity in Early Modern England. London: Cambridge U P, 2015.

Gesner Conrad . Historia animalium lib.I. De quadrupedibus viviparis. Zurich: Cristopher Froschauer, 1551.

Gesner Conrad . Historia animalium lib.ii. De quadrupedibus oviparis. Zurich: Cristopher Froschauer, 1554.

Gesner Conrad . Historia animalium lib..iii. De aevium natura. Zurich: Cristopher Froschauer, 1555.

Gesner Conrad . Historia animalium lib..iiii. De piscium & aquatilium animantium natura. Zurich: Cristopher Froschauer, 1558.

Gouwens Kenneth . “Erasmus, ‘Apes of Cicero’ and Conceptual Blending.” Journal of the History of Ideas 71.4 (2010): 52345.

Hoare Alexandra . “Annibale Caracci’s Self-Portrait on an Easel.” Contrapposto: department of fine art graduate/undergraduate journal 2002/20 03: 6387.

Höltgen Karl Josef . “Clever Dogs and Nimble Spaniels: On the Iconography of Logic, Invention, and Imagination.” Explorations in Renaissance Culture 24 (1998): 136.

Horapollo. Hieroglyphica. Munich 2001.

Janson H.W. Ape and Ape Lore in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. London: Studies of the Warburg Institute, 1952.

Kalof Linda and Montgomery Georgina , eds. Making Animal Meaning. East Lansing: Michigan U P, 2011. 5980.

Kemp Martin . Leonardo on Painting. New Haven: Yale U P, 1989.

Kidwell Carol . Pietro Bembo: Lover, Linguist, Cardinal. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s U P, 2004.

Land Norman E. The Viewer as Poet. University Park: Pennsylvania State U P, 1994.

Mackail J.W. , ed. Select Epigrams from the Greek Anthology. New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1959.

Marret Bertrand . Portraits de l’artiste en singe, Les Singeries dans la peinture. Paris: Somogy, éditions d’art, 2001.

Marrow J. Circumdederunt me canes multi: Christ’s Tormenters in Northern European Art of the Late Middle Ages and Early Renaissance.” Art Bulletin 59 (1977): 16781.

Moffitt John F. The Uninvited Dinner Guest: Why a Barking Dog at Tintoretto’s Last Supper?” Arte Christiana 75.723 (1987): 403408.

Navagero Andrea . Lusus, in Carmina quinque illustrium poetarum, Venetiis, 1548. Ed. Wilson. A.E. Nieuwkoop, 1973.

Panofsky Erwin . Idea, A Concept in Art Theory. Trans. Peake. Joseph J.S. Columbia: U of South Carolina P, 1968.

Papy Jan . “Lipsius and His Dogs: Humanist tradition, Iconography and Ruben’s ‘Four Philosophers.’” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 62 (1999): 167198.

Phillips A.A. and Willcock Malcom M. , eds. Xenophon & Arrian, On Hunting (KYNHΓETIKOΣ). Warminster, uk: Aris & Philips, 1999.

Philo. The Works of Philo Judaeus. London: H.G. Bohn, 185490.

Pithoeus P. Epigrammata et poemata e codicibus et lapidibus collecta. Paris: N. Gillius, 1590.

Podberscek Anthony L. , Paul Elizabeth S. , and Serpell James A. . Companion Animals and us: Exploring the Relationship between People and Pets. Cambridge: Cambridge U P, 2000.

Reuterswärd Patrik . The Visible and Invisible in Art: Essays in the History of Art. Vienna: irsa, 1991.

Roberts Helen F. St. Augustine in St. Jerome’s Study: Carpaccio’s Painting and its Legendary Source.” Art Bulletin 41 (1959): 2839.

Saunders Alison . “Alciati and the Greek Anthology.” Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 12 (1982): 118.

Scaliger Joseph Juste. Catalecta veterum poetarum. Leiden, 1573.

Schnaubelt J.C. and Van Fleteren F. , eds. Augustine in Iconography: History and Legend, Vol. 4 of Collectanea Augustiniana. New York: Peter Lang, 1999.

Shemek Deanna . Letters of Isabella d’Este. Isabella d’Este Archive (idea): www. isabelladeste.web.unc.edu. Accessed October 13, 2017.

Signorini Rodolfo . “Two Notes From Mantua.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 41 (1978): 31721.

Simons Patricia . “Women in Frames: The Gaze, The Eye, and Profile in Renaissance Portraiture.” History Discourse: A Journal of Socialist and Feminist Historians 25 (1988): 430.

Topsell Edward . History of Four-Footed Beasts and Serpents and Insects, (London, 1658). 3 vols. New York: Da Capo Press, 1967.

Valeriano G.P. Hieroglyphica sive de sacris Aegyptiorum aliarumque gentium literis, commentarii Joannis Valeriani, Basel 1556 and 1575. Reprinted as Hieroglyphica. Leiden: Brill, 1990.

Vasari Giorgio . Le vite de’ più eccelenti architetti, pittori e scultori, Torrentino (1550), Giunti (1568). Ed. Milanesi. Gaetano Firenze: G.C. Sansoni, 187985.

Vasari Giorgio . The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, English trans. New York: Modern Library Classics, 2006.

Visser Arnoud S.Q. Joannes Sambucus and The Learned Image: The Use Of The Emblem In Late-Renaissance Humanism. Leiden: Brill, 2005.

Figures

  • Vittore Carpaccio, Venetian Ladies on a Balcony, tempera and oil on panel, 94 × 63 cm., ca. 1495–1510, Museo Civico Correr, Venice.

    View in gallery
  • Vittore Carpaccio, St. Augustine in his Study, oil on canvas, 141 × 211 cm., ca. 1502, Scuola di San Giorgio degli Schiavoni, Venice.

    View in gallery
  • Typus logicae, woodcut from Gregor Reisch, Margarita philosophica, Strasbourg, 1503, Universitätsbibliothek Erlangen-Nuremberg.

    View in gallery
  • Jacopo Bassano, Two Hunting Dogs, 1550s, oil on canvas, 61 × 80 cm., Paris, Musée du Louvre

    View in gallery
  • Titian, Boy with Dogs in a Landscape, oil on canvas, 117 × 100 cm., Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (Inv 2569).

    View in gallery
  • Paolo Caliari, called Veronese, Supper at, Emmaus, Oil on canvas, 242 × 416 cm., ca. 1560, Musée du Louvre, Paris

    View in gallery
  • Paolo Caliari, called Veronese, Marriage at Cana, oil on canvas, 677 × 994 cm., ca. 1559–60, Paris, Musée du Louvre

    View in gallery
  • Annibale Caracci, Self Portrait with his Dog and Cat, oil on panel, 42.5 × 30 cm., 1604, The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg

    View in gallery
  • Carpaccio, Return of the Ambassadors, Ex Scuola di Sant’Ursula, oil on canvas, 297 × 527 cm., 1495–96, Gallerie dell’Accademia, Venice.

    View in gallery
  • Rosso Fiorentino, detail from Deposition of Christ, oil on canvas, 270 × 201 cm., 1528, Church of San Lorenzo, Borgo San Sepolcro.

    View in gallery
  • Natura Simia, engraving by Theodore de Bry, Frontispiece, Robert Fludd, Utriusque Cosmi Historia Tractatus Secundus De Naturae Simia Sue Technica Macrocosmi Historia, Frankfurt 1624.

    View in gallery
  • Imitatio Sapiens, engraving by Charles Errard, in Pietro Bellori, Vite de’ pittori, scultori e architetti moderni, Rome, 1672.

    View in gallery

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 20 20 12
Full Text Views 7 7 7
PDF Downloads 1 1 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0