In 2002 the European Union commenced significant reforms to the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) which included introduction of a new control and enforcement system. In 2007, the new Community Fisheries Control Agency (CFCA) undertook its first work programme. The establishment of the CFCA was considered to be the final part of the CFP reforms commenced in 2002. This paper examines the course of the 2002 reforms in relation to fisheries control and enforcement in European Community waters, particularly issues concerning non-flag enforcement, and considers whether there has been a shift towards greater reliance on non-flag enforcement measures. The paper examines the two major innovations of the 2002 control and enforcement system, namely: regional cooperation and coordination and the establishment of the CFCA. The paper also examines developments in the European Commission's and Member States' respective roles in relation to control and enforcement. Finally, the paper considers the focus of the 2002 control and enforcement system on technical management tools for the achievement of more effective control and management of fisheries.