The paper examines the process and context of international efforts to designate Marine Protected Areas (mpas) in the Southern Ocean. The relationship between the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (camlr Convention) and the Madrid Protocol is examined in relation to legal, political and administrative norms and practices. A contextual overview of the Antarctic mpa system is considered, followed by an analysis of the overlapping competencies of the camlr Commission (ccamlr) and the Madrid Protocol. The Antarctic mpa debate is placed in a wider international legal context of the management of global oceans space in areas beyond national jurisdiction. We provide an analysis of the politico-legal discourse and point to complicating factors within, and external to, the Antarctic system. The concluding section suggests options for breathing new life into the Southern Ocean mpa discourse.
Defined in Fisheries Act1996section 2 where “New Zealand fisheries waters means a. all waters in the exclusive economic zone of New Zealand: b. all waters of the territorial sea of New Zealand: c. all internal waters of New Zealand: d. all other fresh or estuarine waters within New Zealand where fish aquatic life or seaweed that are indigenous to or acclimatised in New Zealand are found”.
Resolution 1 (2000)—satcm xii—cep iii The Hague: Guidelines for implementation of the Framework for Protected Areas set forth in Article 3 Annex v of the Environmental Protocol. Accessible at: http://www.ats.aq.
Resolution 1 (2000)—satcm xii—cep iii.
Decision 9 (2005) atcm xxviii—Stockholm available at: http://www.ats.aq/devAS/ats_meetings_meeting_measure.aspx?lang=e.