Mapping Khwārazmian Connections in the History of Sufi Traditions

Local Embeddedness, Regional Networks, and Global Ties of the Sufi Communities of Khwārazm

in Eurasian Studies
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The history of Sufi traditions in Khwārazm reveals patterns of development that broadly correlate with patterns and alignments evident in the region’s social, political, and economic history; this is not unexpected, of course, but this correlation provides a convenient vantage point from which to explore Khwārazmian Sufi traditions, and it also lends significance to the literary and folkloric legacies of those traditions, which can illuminate aspects of Khwārazmian history for periods otherwise poorly represented in written sources. The present study offers a broad outline of Sufi activity in Khwārazm, from the 12th century to the 19th, noting the sometimes alternating, sometimes overlapping patterns of locally-rooted Sufi communities, deeply embedded in Khwārazmian social topography, and of regionally- and internationally-connected Sufi groups reflecting large-scale networks; in the latter case, particular attention is given to ‘mapping’ the links of Sufi communities based in Khwārazm with other groups – both in distinctive configurations of regional Central Asian frameworks (i.e., northern Khurāsān, Manghïshlāq, the Syr Daryā valley, the Dasht-i Qïpchāq), and in wider ‘global’ frameworks connecting Khwārazm with the broader Muslim world (the holy cities, Istanbul, Crimea, Kashmīr and India). Consideration of the initial phase of Sufi history in the region, in the late 12th and early 13th centuries, is followed by a focus on the sparse but significant evidence on Khwārazmian Sufis of the 14th and 15th centuries, perhaps the most poorly known era of Khwārazmian history in the Muslim era, and to the much richer source base for the flourishing of ‘Kubravī’ communities – in Khwārazm and in the regions closely connected with it – during the 16th century; the continuation of these patterns, but also the emergence of distinctively local Khwārazmian variants of other Sufi traditions (‘Yasavī’ and Naqshbandī), from the 17th century to the early 19th will also be addressed.

Mapping Khwārazmian Connections in the History of Sufi Traditions

Local Embeddedness, Regional Networks, and Global Ties of the Sufi Communities of Khwārazm

in Eurasian Studies

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References

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1

See Prozorov S.M.“A Unique Manuscript of a Biographical Dictionary by a Khorezmian Author”Manuscripta Orientaliav/2 (1999): pp. 9-17.

4

See Elias Jamal J.“The Sufi Lords of Bahrabad: Saʻd al-Din and Sadr al-Din Hamuwayi”IrStxxvii (1994): pp. 53-75.

11

See Meier Fritz“Ein Briefwechsel zwischen Šaraf ud-dîn-i Balḫî und Maǧd ud-dîn-i Bagdâdî” in Mélanges offerts à Henry Corbined. S.H. Nasr (Tehran: Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy/McGill University Institute of Islamic Studies Tehran Branch 1977): pp. 321-366 and the English translation “An Exchange of Letters between Sharaf al-Dīn-i Balkhī and Majd al-Dīn-i Baghdādī” in Meier Fritz Essays on Islamic Piety and Mysticism tr. John O’Kane with editorial assistance of Bernd Radtke (Leiden: Brill 1999): pp. 245-81.

17

See Shahzad BashirMessianic Hopes and Mystical Visions: The Nūrbakhshīya Between Medieval and Modern Islam (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press2003).

44

On this group see B.I. Vainberg“K istorii kungratskikh Sufi” in Polevye issledovaniia Khorezmskoi èkspeditsii v 1957 godu (Moscow: Nauka 1960; Materialy Khorezmskoi èkspeditsiiiv): pp. 104-14 with references to Bartol’ds earlier discussion.

46

See Iudin V.P. ed.Utemish-khadzhi: Chingiz-name. Faksimile perevod transkriptsiia tekstologicheskie primechaniia issledovanie V.P. Iudina; Podgotovila k izdaniiu Iu. G. Baranova; Kommentarii i ukazateli M. Kh. Abuseitovoi (Alma-Ata: Gylym1992): pp. 113 139-40.

54

See Schwarz Florian“An Endowment Deed of 1547 (953 h.) for a Kubravi khanaqah in Samarkand” in Die Grenzen der Welt: Arabica et Iranica ad honorem Heinz Gaubeed. Lorenz Korn Eva Orthmann and Florian Schwarz (Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag 2008): pp. 189-210 and the facsimile published in Karimov Elyor Kubraviiskii vakf XVII-XIX vv.: Pis’mennye istochniki po istorii sufiiskogo bratstva Kubraviia v Srednei Azii (Tashkent: Fan 2008).

84

See Demidov S.M.Turkmenskie ovliady (Ashkhabad: Ylym1976): p. 135-6.

88

See Frank Allen J.Bukhara and the Muslims of Russia: Sufism Education and the Paradox of Islamic Prestige (Leiden/Boston: Brill2012): pp. 57 78 93-4 112 and Bustanov Alfrid K. “Bulghar as “Land of Ignorance:” Anti-Colonial Discourse in Khorezmian Connectivity” Journal of Persianate Studiesix/2 (2016): pp. 183-204.

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