The Aral Region and Geopolitical Agenda of the Early Qongrats

in Eurasian Studies
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The essay seeks to consider how the region of the Aral Sea initially functioned as a frontier zone and then, over time, as a newly-incorporated territory within the Khanate of Khiva in Khoresm, and how the dynasty of recently enthroned Qongrat rulers set about integrating the Aral region into their polity. In doing so, I hope to be able to show how Muḥammad Raḥīm Khān i, the Qongrat (r. 1806-25) shaped his geopolitical agenda according to the new spatial organization of his realm, and how the early 19th-century Khanate of Khiva was transformed by this newly configured balance between the settled and the nomadic worlds.

The Aral Region and Geopolitical Agenda of the Early Qongrats

in Eurasian Studies

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References

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1

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27

Rychkov PetrTopografiia Orenburgskaia (Saint Petersburg: Imperatorskaia Akademiia Nauk1762): p. 25.

34

Shalekenov UakhitKazakhi nizov’ev Amudar’i. K istorii vzaimootnoshenii narodov Karakalpakii v XVIII-XX vv. (Tashkent: Fan1966): pp. 19-20. Andrianov referring to Russian sources names some of the Kazakh tribes whose winter camps were in the vicinity of Aral: Kereit Tork-Kara Karasakal Kishkina Shekty on the eastern outskirts and Aday and Shekty on the western. Andrianov Etnicheskaia territoriia: p. 94.

36

Tursunova MariaKazakhi Mangyshlaka vo vtoroi polovine XIX veka. Voprosy sotcial’no-ekonomicheskoi politicheskoi istorii (Alma-Ata: Nauka1977): p. 18.

43

Karazin Nikolai“V nizov’yakh Amu. Putevye ocherki” in Vestnik Evropyx/3 (March 1875): pp. 204 220.

60

Zadykhina“Uzbeki”: p. 332; Zhdanko, Tat’iana, “Karakalpaki Khorezmskogo oazisa (Materialy polevykh issledovanii Karakalpakskogo etnograficheskogo otriada Khorezmskoi ekspeditsii AN SSSR, 1945-1948 gg.)” in Trudy Khorezmskoi arkheologo-etnograficheskoi ekspeditsiii (Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Akademii Nauk sssr 1952): pp. 520-1.

61

Danilevskii Gregor“Opisanie Khivinskogo khanstva” in Zapiski Imp. Russkogo geograficheskogo obshchestvav (Saint Petersburg: Imp. Akademiia Nauk 1851): pp. 91-2. Theodor Friedrich Basiner in 1842 asserted that the pheasant were in “an incredible amount” in the reeds of the Amu Darya delta and were delivered to Khiva in large trucks. See Basiner Theodor-Fridrich “Estestvenno-nauchnoe puteshestvie po Kirgizskoi stepi v Khivu” in Istoriia Kazakhstana v zapadnykh istochnikakh XII-XX vv. Nemetckie issledovateli v kazakhstane (Almaty: Sanat 2006): p. 339.

88

According to Munis in December 1810Muḥammad Raḥīm Khān for three days was at the edge of Borichi-qir (Bel-tau) waiting for the transit “until the Qaraqalpaq party passed” see Firdaws al-iqbāl (transl. Bregel): p. 345.

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