On Madrasas, Legitimation, and Islamic Revival in 19th-Century Khorezm

Some Preliminary Observations

in Eurasian Studies
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In this research note I set out to show that the concept of “legitimation,” widely employed as an explanatory device by historians of Islamic Central Asia, is of little help to explain the increase of Islamic institutions in the Khanate of Khiva. I do so by examining an endowment deed notarized after the establishment of the Qutlūgh Murād Ïnāq madrasa in Khiva and by reflecting on the purposes which Qunghrat dynasts wanted to achieve by putting in place a new education system in Khorezm. My contention is that such a system reflects different levels of connectivity within the Khanate of Khiva and around it. More specifically, I consider how the construction of madrasas was integral to Qunghrat governance within Khorezm and how it was connected to the educational economy of wider Muslim communities within the Russian Empire.

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3

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5

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10

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36

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38

Kamalov, Sabir K., Karakalpaki v XVIII-XIX vekakh (K istorii vzaimootnoshenii s Rossiei i sredneaziatskimi khanstvami) (Tashkent: Fan, 1968): pp. 140, 162, 169; Id. “Narodno-osvoboditel’naia bor’ba Karakalpakov protiv Khivinskikh khanov v XIX v.,” in. Zhdanko, Tatiana A. (ed.), Materialy i issledovaniia po étnografii karakalpakov. Trudy Khorezmskoi arkheologichesko-étnograficheskoi ekspeditsii (Moscow: Izdatel’stvo akademii nauk sssr, 1958): pp. 155, 162.

39

Kosbergenov, R., “Polozhenie karakalpakskogo naseleniia v Khivinskom khanstve v kontse XIX-nachale XX v.”, in Materialy i issledovaniia po étnografii karakalpakov, ed. T.A. Zhdanko (Moscow: Izdatel’stvo akademii nauk sssr, 1958): 262. Here Kosbergenov refers to a story that he collected in the Shumanay district in 1951. A bride had run away with her lover. The two were apprehended and sentenced to death. According to the narrative proposed by Kosbergenov, the intervention of a Qaraqalpaq qadi who had just completed his studies in a Khivan madrasa was instrumental in the formulation of the death sentence.

60

Subtelny, Maria Eva, Timurids in Transition: Turko-Persian Politics and Acculturation in Medieval Iran (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2007): p. 153.

61

Karimov, El’yor, Kubraviiskii vakf XVII-XVX vv.: pis’mennye istochniki po istorii sufiiskogo bratstva Kubraviia v Srednei Azii (Tashkent: Fan, 2008).

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