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1 Jack Patton was a part-time lecturer at the Church-Mission Institute of the Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary. He formerly served as medical missionary in Papua New Guinea (1973- 1980) with the Church of the Nazarene.

2 See my article: "Christian ministry of healing on its way to the year 2000: an archaeology of medical missions" (Jansen 1995:295-307)

3 J.C.Hoekendijk had already introduced this triad of biblical conceptions at a missionary conference in Indonesia just after World War II (1946:92-98). I made use of his ideas in my paper read to a missionary conference of the Dutch Reformed Church Transkei Mission (June 1977) on the theme: 'Comprehensive aspects of modem medical mission work' (Jansen 1968:42).

4 Besides the minutes of the Enlarged Meeting and the Committee of the IMC Willingen, I consulted N. Goodall, (ed.), Missions under the Cross, London 1953. Van 't Hoff (1972:155- 177) mentions only that Willingen discussed the 'acts of mercy', as expressed in education and medical work and the teamwork of medical missionaries (p.172).

5 Using this term, Jongeneel was aware of the fact that the terminology borrowed from the Greek word diakonia has not acquired a warm reception in Anglo-Saxon countries. He mentions that in the Dictionary Catalog of the Missionary Research Library (1968) the word 'diakonate' is missing.

6 In this connection Ohm's definition of medical mission work needs to be considered: "die in Verbindung mit der Mission und im Sinn der Mission betatigte Sorge fur das naturliche leiblich-seelische Wohl der menschen" (Ohm 1935:59). 7 From these 68 articles reviewed, 15 had a geographical link (eight with China), eight were related to specific diseases (leprosy scored five), the ministry of healing 11, community health five and the remaining 29 articles discussed principles, methods and developments of medical missions. 8 The Occasional Bulletin from the Missionary Research Library preceding to the IBMR gave more attention to medical missions. For example it provided selected bibliographies on medical missions, in 1959 and 1964 respectively and published the preparatory papers for the Consultation on 'The healing ministry in the mission of the church' (1964).

9 I refer to the publication of a selection of Schweitzer's letters in 1987, edited by Hans Walter Baehr. He divided his oeuvre as follows: autobiographical writings: theological works; section on organ building and organ art; philosophical writings.

10 Fritz Kollbrunner is of opinion: "Schweitzer hat keine missionstheoretische Abhandlungen verfasst" (1975:289). This statement is also applicable to the field of medical missions. 11 The publication Arztliche Dienst im Umbruch der Zeit is a multi-author book of which he was editor.

12 The Edinburgh Medical Missionary Society enjoyed strong support from the medical profession in Scotland. The cream of Edinburgh medicine belonged to this Society. Several professors of medicine served on the Committee. 13 L.Buecliner (1824-1899) studied in Gieszen (Germany) philosophy and later on medicine. 14 Georg Ernst Stahl (1659-1734) was professor of medicine at the university of Halle from 1694-1715. He is seen as one of the most important innovators of medicine in the time of the early Enlightenment. 15 Richter distinguished three streams in German Pietism (1928:77): Halle Pietism with Philip Jacob Spener as the spiritual father; Moravian Pietism (Hernnhuter) with count Zinzendorf as leader and Wurttemberg Pietism, whose representative Christoph M. Pfaff had academic influence in Tubingen.

16 The Missions Inquiry was conducted under a Commission of Appraisal, consisting of 15 members. Two of them fulfilled a teaching function at medical schools in the USA. I do not know if these members had missionary experience.

17 To select a few: Johannes Winkler (Rheinische Mission) made an ethnographic study on the Toba-Batak in times of health and sickness (1925). In his preface he wrote that the Batak conceptions of hygiene and the healing art lead into the world of animism and dynamism. Furthermore J.A.Verdoom's dissertation, dealing with obstetric care for the indigenous population of Dutch East Indies (Leiden 1941) opened my eyes to the anthropological dimensions of medical mission work.

Anderson, Harold G. 1953 "The changing pattern of medical missions." World Dominion January/February: 33-45. Reprinted in: Occasional Bulletin from the Missionary Research Library 5(11) October 1954:1-13.

Beach, H.P. and Fahs, C.H. 1925 World Missionary Atlas. New York, NY: Institute of Social and Religious Research.

Bechler, Th. 1932 200 Jahre ärztliche Missionsarbeit der Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine. Herrnhut: Verlag der Missionsbuchhandlung.

1933 "Zinzendorf und die anfängliche arztliche Tatigkeit der Herrnhuter." Evangelisches Missionsmagazin 77, Neue Folge:105-114.

Beidelman, T.O. 1982 Colonial evangelism: a socio-historical study of an East African Mission at the grassroots. Bloomington, Ind: Indiana University Press.

Blauw, J. 1952 "Willingen, 5-18 Juli 1952." De Heerbaan 5:89-92 and 296-309.

Bosch, David J. 1991 Transforming mission. Paradigm shifts in theology of mission. American Society of Missiological Series, No. 16. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.

Bosch, David J. and Gerard Jansen 1968 Sending in meervoud. Teologiese Studies oor die Sending van die Kerk in die wereld, No. 5.Pretoria, SA: N.G.Kerk-boekhandel.

Browne, Stanley G. 1956 "Medical missions at the crossroads." International Review of Missions 45:278-288.

Buerkle, Horst 1979 "Heilendes Handeln. " Missionstheologie. Band 18, Reihe Theologische Wissenschaft. Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer.

Christlieb, Th. 1888 "Ärztliche Missionen." Allgemeine Missionszeitschrift Bd 15:9-25,49-79, 176-192, 234-248.

Daubanton, Francois E. 1911 Prolegomena van Protestantsche zendingswetenschap. Utrecht: Kemink & Zn.

Dennis, James S. 1902 Centennial survey of foreign missions-A statistical supplement to Christian missions and social progress, being a conspectus of the achievements and results of evangelical missions in all lands at the close of the nineteenth century. New York, NY: Fleming H. Revell East Company.

Dodd Edward M. 1928 "To our medical missionaries." The China Medical Journal 42:453-455.

1964 The gift of the healer: The story of men and medicine in the overseas mission of the church. New York, NY: Friendship Press.

East Asia Christian Conference 1959 The Christian in medical work in East Asia. Report of the East Asia Christian Conference, held in Hong Kong, December 28, 1958-January 1, 1959.

Ecumenical Missionary Conference on Foreign Missions 1900 Report of the Ecumenical Missionary Conference on Foreign Missions, held in Carnegie and neighbouring churches, April 21 to May 1. New York, NY: American Tract Society.

Edinburgh Medical Missionary Society 1908-1911 "The World Missionary Conferences." Quarterly Papers, 12:285-301.

Feldmann, Herman 1904 Die ärztliche Mission unter Heiden und Mohammedanern. Basler Missionstudien, Heft 25. Basel: Verlag der Missionsbuchhandlung.

Gaay Fortman, N.A. de 1908 De geschiedenis der medische zending. Nijkerk (Netherlands): Callenbach.

Gelfand, Michael 1988 Godly medicine in Zimbabwe: a history of its medical missions. Gwelo: Mambo Press.

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Geyer-Kordesch, Johanna 1990 "Georg Ernst Stahl's radical Pietist medicine and its influence on the German Enlightenment. In: The medical enlightenment of the eighteenth century. A. Cunningham and R. French (eds.), pp.67-87. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Good, Charles M. 1991 "Pioneer medical missions in Colonial Africa." Social Science & Medicine 32(1):1-10.

Grundmann, Christoffer H. 1985 "The role of medical missions in the missionary enterprise. A historical and missiological survey." Mission Studies 2(2):39-48.

1992 Gesandt zu heilen! Aufkommen und Entwicklung der ärztliche Mission im neunzehnten Jahrhundert. Gütersloh: Gütersloh Verlagshaus Gerd Mohn

Hill, T. Patrick 1994 "The cultural and philosophical foundations of normative medical ethics." Social Science & Medicine 39(9):1149-1154.

Hocking, William E. 1932 "Medical Work of Missions." In Re-thinking missions. A laymen's inquiry after one hundred years, Commission of Appraisal, William E. Hocking chairman, pp. 194-213 and 325-329. New York, NY: Harper & Brothers.

Hoekendijk, Johannes C. 1946 Zending in Indonesië. Den Haag: Boekencentrum

Hogg, William Richey 1952 Ecumenical foundations. A history of the International Missionary Council and its nineteenth-century background. New York, NY: Harper & Brothers.

International Missionary Council 1928 "The Christian mission in relation to rural problems in Asia." In Report of the Jeruzalem Meeting of the I.M.C., March 24th-April 8th 1928. Vol.6, pp. 287. London: Oxford University Press.

International Missionary Council 1939 Findings and recommendations of the meeting of the I.M.C. Tambaram, Madras,India, December 12-29, 1938. London: IMC.

Jansen, Gerard 1966 "Dokter en predikant saam op die sendingveld. Raakvlakke en grense." Ned. Ger. Teologiese Tydskrif 7(4):207-229.

1973 The doctor-patient relationship in an African tribal society. Assen: Van Gorcum & Comp.

1995 "Christian ministry of healing on its way to the year 2000: an archaeology of medical missions." Missiology 23(3):295-307.

Jongeneel, J.A.B. 1991 Missiologie. 's-Gravenhage: Boekencentrum B.V.

Kollbrunner, Fritz 1975 "Albert Schweitzer und die Mission." Neue Zeitschrift für Missionswissenschaft 31:288-293.

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Lindsell, Harold 1955 Missionary principles and practice. Westwood, NJ: Fleming H. Revell Company.

Maxwell, J.L. 1914 "God's hand in medical missions." Medical missions at home and abroad, NS. 15:67-69.

Mazzarella, P 1992 "Introduction." In Transcultural dimensions in medical ethics. E. Pellegrino [et al...], eds., p.1. Frederick, MD: University Publishing Group.

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Miller, Elmer S. 1973 "The Christian missionary: agent of secularization." Missiology 1(1): 99-107.

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1962MachetzuJüngernalleVölker. Theorie der Mission. Freiburg: Erich Wewel Verlag.

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1932 "Medical missions and their international relations." In Modern medical missions. K.W.Braun, ed. Burlington: Lutheran Literary Board.

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