DANCING AND PERFORMING: JAPANESE ARTISTS IN THE EARLY 1920s AT THE DAWN OF MODERN DANCE

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  • 1. For avant-garde performance in this period, see this author's "Tada-Dada (Devotedly Dada) for the Stage," in G Janecek and T. Omuka, eds., The Eastern Dada Orbit (New York: G K. Hall, 1998), pp. 223-310; Gennifer Weisenfeld, M,avo (Berkeley and Los Angeles; Univ. of California Press, 2001), ch. 6; and the recent informative exhibition catalog: Dansu! (Utsunomiya: Tochigi Prefectural Museum of Art, 2003). For general history of modem dance in Japan, see Shiro Ku- saka, Gendai buyo ga meetekuru (Tokyo: Chusekisha, 1998); Kazuko Kuniyoshi, Yume no isho, Kioku no tsubo (Tokyo: Shinshokan, 2002), chs. 8-13 and epilogue. Though the latter two books in Japanese lack bibliographical notes, both and especially the first one include many important photographs. This author is largely indebted to these in writing this article. 2. For this theater, see the recent catalog exhibition, Yomigaeru Teikoku Gekijo ten (Tokyo: The Tsubouchi Memorial Theater Museum, Waseda Univ., 2002). 3. Kusaka, Gendai buvo gamietekuru, p. 18 (hereafter translations are mine unless otherwise noted) and a rare photograph of Flower Dance, p. I 9.

  • 4. For this, see Mai Sakamoto, "Teikoku Gekijo Haikeibu," in cat. ex. Yomigaeru Teikoku Gekijo ten, pp. 46-47. 5. Kusaka, Gendai buvo gamietekuru, pp. 19-25. 6. Kosaku Yamada, Kindai buyo no hoka (Tokyo: Ars, 1922); quoted from idem., Yamada Kosaku zenshar (Tokyo: lwanami shoten, 2001), l: 24. 7. For his life and art, Helen Caldwell's monograph, Michio Ito (Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press, 1977), is still the most reliable source to date. Its Japanese translation (trans. Einosuke Nakagawa, Tokyo: Hayakawa shobo, 1985 ) is also important with supplemen- tary commentary by Ito's brother and famous theater director Koreya Senda who worked in Ber-

  • lin in the 1920s as a proletarian activist. 8. For his life and art, see ex. cat., Saito Kazo ren (Tokyo: Yurakucho Asahi Gallery, 1990) which includes photographs of archival materials of Saito. 9. Photographs of this exhibit were kept also in Der Sturm collection in Berlin. The 1-ibrary of the Museum of Modern Art, New York, holds a rare copy of this exhibition catalog. , , 10. Tsutomu Mizusawa, "The artists start to dance," in Elise Tipton and John Clark, eds., Be- ing Modern in Japan (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2000), pp. 15-24. 11. Dansu!, p. 83 12. This information was kindly provided by Ms. Nobuko Goto, an expert on Kosaku Ya- mada. 13. Baku Ishii, Odoru baka (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1955), p. 29.

  • 14. Baku Ishii, Watashi no buyo seikatsu (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1951), p. 30. 15. Yamada, Yamada Kosaku zenshu, op. cit., p. 581. He noted in the same article that Nikki no ippeji played in June 1916 was its first piece. 16. Kusaka, Gendai buyo ga mietekuru, pp. 26-27. 17. Takashi Iba, "Shin gekijo no jigyo o hyoshite Osanai Yamada ryokun ni tadasu," Engei gaho, 3, no. 7 (July 1917), 122-23. 18_ Ishii, "Yamada kun ni kawatte Iba Takashi kun ni atau," ibid., 3, no. 8 (Aug. 1916),128-30.

  • 19. Ishii, Watashi no buyo seikatsu, op. cit., p. 20. For details of Yamada's stay in USA, see Midori 'lakeishi, "Yamada Kosaku no amerika ryoko," Ongaku gaku�46, no. 1 (2000), 14-25. 21. For Ito and Japanese dance, see Midori Takeishi, "Ito Michio nv nihonteki buyo," Tokyo _ , Ongaku Daigaku kenkyu kiyo, 24 (2000), 35-60. 22. This author read a paper on Tami Koume and Pound at the 30th International Congress of the History of Art in London in September 2000. 23 D. D. Paige, ed., Selected Letters ofEzra Pound 1907-1941 (New York: New Directions, 1971), p. 282. 24. Ezra Pound, "Study of Noh continues in West,"1heJapan Times, Dec. 10, 1939.

  • 25. The date is unknown. Takeishi ("Ito Michio no nihonteki buyo," p. 55, note 16) suggested that it was done in June while James Longenbach did it in October (Stone Cottage [New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1988], p. 201). 26. See the list of participants in ex. cat. Am Anfang: Das Junge Rheinland (Stadtische Kunsthalle, Dusseldorf, 1985), p. 60. In addition to Murayama, there were Wadachi and Nagano. 27. The exhibition catalog appeared in "Die grosse Futuristische Ausstellung in Berlin, Marz 1922," Der F'uturismus, 1, no. I (May 1922), p. 5. Murayama's entries were: 157 Tanzerin

  • GertrudFalke,158Halenseebrücke,159Augsburgerstrasse�(iii.)., 160 P0I1rät des Dichters Va- sari. This last was Ruggero Vasari, poet and editor of the journal. 28. Tomoyoshi Murayama, "Hamuburugu kiko," Tsujibasha, no. 17 (July 1925), p. 75. In this story, Murayama wondered violent jumps of Wigman group with other contemporary trends in dance were but a rococo legacy. 29. Tomoyoshi Murayama, Engekiteki jijoden: dai 2bu (Tokyo: Toho shusha, 1971), p. 30. 30. The letter is stored in the Fondation Custodia, Paris. This information was kindly provided by Evert van Straaten.' 31. See the entry to Lissitzky's address book reproduced in cat. ex. El Lissinky (Eindhoven: Municipal Van Abbe Museum, 1990), p. 12. 32. Murayama, Engekitekijijoden, p. 32.

  • 33. Gennifer Weisenfeld, Mavo, pp. 317-18, note 69. 34 Tomoyoshi Murayama, "Dansu no honshitsu ni tsuite," Chuo bijutsu, 9, no. 7 (July 1923), 166-79. 35. Ibid., pp. 168-69. 36. Ibid., p. 172.

  • 37. Weisenfeld has convincingly argued "Theatrical Broticism" of Mavo group. See idem., pp. 239 ff. 38. The collage (27cm x 20.1 cm) is now in the collection of the Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Contemporary Art. For details, see Hiroko Kato, " Murayama Tomoyoshi's Sketch-book and Collages" (in Japanese), Bulletin ofTokyo Metropolitan Art Museum, 17 (1992), 31-33. 39. Kazuko Murayama, "Sankaku no ie yori," Fujino no tomo, 18, no. )0(0):t. 1924). 40. For this, see the recent exhibition catalog, Modernism in the Russian Far East (Machida: Machida Munucipal Museum of Print Art, 2002). 41. Tai Kanbra,"Wagakuni ni okeru shinko geijutsu to shinko geijutsu," 13i no kuni, 3. no. 3 (April 1927), 40. 42. Shuichiro Kinoshita, "Miraiha bijutsu kyokai no koro," Cendai no me, no. 186 (May 1970), p. 7. '

  • 43. "Kaita ningen ga kuti o kiku," Yorozu choho, May 20, 1925, evening ed., p. 2. 44. Sadanosuke Nakada,"Megane o suteru," Cfmo b�utsu, 11, no. 7 (July 1925), 53. 45. Shuichiro Kinoshita, "---X---kara hajimatta yuseion sikei," Mavo, no. 2 (Aug. 1924), un- paginated.

  • 46. For details, see Omuka, "Tada=Dada," pp. 278-79.

  • 47. For details, see Toshiharu Omuka, "Maebashi Mavo," in Moriya Masahiko et al., eds., Geijutsugaku no shatei (Tokyo: Banseisha, 2000), pp. 334-48. 48. For Maebashi, see Toshiharu Omuka, "Maebashi Mavo," Shinbo Toru sensei koki kinen ronbunshu henshu iinkai, ed., Geijutsugaku no shiza (Tokyo: Bensei shuppan, 2002), pp. 334-48. 49. Yoshio Ochiai, "Wakai Kyochan, Fujimura Yukio," Furai, no. 93 (Fall 1987), p. 41. 1. 50. Murayama, "Dansu no honshitsu ni tuite," p. 168. Twardy even set up an appointment with Kandinsky at Bauhaus in Weimar but Murayama did not go there for a certain reason.

  • 51. Rikuhei Umemoto, interview with Sumio Kanbayashi,"Buyo dangi," Dansu waku, no. 29 ' (June 1981 pp. 26-31. 1. 52. For details, see Hiroshi Watanabe, Nihon bunka, rnodan rapushodei_(Tokyo: Shinshokan, 2002), ch. 6. 53. For her life and art, see Nishimiya Yasuichiro, ed., Fujiknge Seiju (Tokyo: Kawai gakufu, 1965).

  • 54. Baku Ishii, Watashi no buyo seikatsu, p. 117.

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