MAJOR THEORIES OF GROUP MOVEMENT IN THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC

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  • 1. The views of Fritz. Giese, Girlkultur. Vergleiche zwischen amerikanischem und eu- ropaischem Rhythmus und Lebensgefiihl (Munich: Delphin. 1925) and Siegfried Kracauer, The Mass Ornament. 'Weimar Essays (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. 1995 [1926-1932]) - emerge again in Reinhard Klooss and Thomas Reuter, K6rperbilder: Menschenornamente in Re- vnetheater und Revuefilm (Frankfurt am Main: Syndikat. 1980). Apparently the idea that the cho- rus line represents a "fascist," totalitarian, or capitalist aesthetic does not apply to the group syn- chronicity of ballet, but only to group movement in nightclub or music hall shows.

  • 2. Major sources of information about Isadora Duncan appear in Ann Daly, Done into Dance: Isadora Duncan in America (Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1995); Doree Duncan, Carol Pratl, and Cynthia Splatt, eds., Life into Art: Isadora Duncnn and Ner World (New York: Norton, 1993); Peter Kurth, Isadora: A Sensational Life (Boston: Little, Brown, 2001 Isadora Duncan, My Life (New York: Boni and Liveright, 1927); Frank-Manuel Peter, ed., Isadora and Elisabeth Duncan in Germany (Cologne: Wienand, 2000). 3. On Elisabeth Duncan, see Frank-Manuel Peter and Rainer Stamm, "The Rhythmic Forma- ' tion and Free Spiritual development of All Forces ... The Elisabeth Duncan School within the network of the Folkwang Impulse," in Peter, ed., Isadora and Elizabeth Duncan in Germany, pp. l28-43; Lore Lindig, "Interesting, Somewhat Adventurous Years: Memories of the Duncan school period in Klessheim near Salzburg," ibid., pp. 144-73); Walther Heun, "Die Elisabeth

  • Duncan Schule," In Gunhild Oberzaucher-Schüllcr, ed., 4usdruckstanz (Wilhelmshaven: Noet- zel, 1992), pp. 224-32; Max Merz, "Die Emeuerung des Lebens- und KörpergefLih1s," in Ludwig Pallat and Franz Hilker, eds., Kiinstlerische K6rperschulung. (Breslau: Hirt, 1923), pp. 14-27; Emst Schur, Der moderne Tanz (Munich: Lammers, 1910). 4. On Stebbins and Delsarte, see Nancy Lee Chaifa. Ruyter, The Culaivation of Body and Mind in Nineteenth-Century American Delsartism (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999); Genevieve Stebbins, Delsarte System of Expression, 6th ed. (New York: Werner, 1902).

  • 5. Mensendieck's chief publications include the following: Körperkultur der Frau (Munich: Bruckmann, 1906); Standards of Female Beauty (New York: Schob and Wisser, 1919); Funk- tionelles Frauenturnen (Munich: Bruckmann, 1923); Bewegungsprobleme, die Gestaltung .. schoner Anne (Munich: Bruckmann, 1927); Anmut der Bewegung im taglichen Leben (Munich: Bruckmann, 1927); It's Up to You (New York: Mensendieck Main School, 1931 ). 6. Karel Pospisil, ed., Zaklady rytmickeho telocviku sokolskeho (Prague: Telocvcne Jednoty Sokol. 1928); Elfriede Feudel,.Rhythmik. Theorie und Praxis der kdrperldch-musikalischen

  • Erziehung (Munich: Delphin, 1926); Marie-Laure Bachmann, La Rhythmique Jaques-Dalcroze. (Neuchatel: La Baconnerie, 1984).

  • 7. Karl L.orenz, ed., Wege nach Hellerau (Dresden: Hellerau, 1994).

  • 8. Edmund Stadler, "Theater und Tanz in Ascona," in Harald Szeemann, ed., Monte Verita. Berg der Wahrheit (Milan: Electa, 1979), pp. 126-35.

  • 9. Toepfer, "One Hundred Years of Nakedness in German Performance," ibid., pp. 144-88 10. For descriptions of Laban's life and work in Ascona, see Giorgio Wolfensberger, ed., ., . Suzanne Perrortet. Ein bewegtes Leben (Bern: Benteli, 1990); Edmund Stadler, "Theater und ' "' Tanz in Ascona," in Szeemann, ed., Monte Verita. Berg der Wahrheit, pp. 126-35. However, the most comprehensive account of Laban's life and career before 1936 is the immense dissertation by Evelyn Dorr. Rudolf von Laban. Leben und Werk des Kanstiers (1879-1936), 2 vols: 1. Bi- ografie and 2. Konstlerisches Werk, dissertation, Humboldt Universitat, Berlin. 1998.

  • 11. The best examples of Laban's "theoretical" writing in the 1920s include Des Kindes Gymnastik und Tanz (Oldenburg: Stalling 1926); Gymnastik und Tanz (Oldenburg: Stalling 1926); Choreographie (Jena: Diederichs, 1926). But see also Die Well des Tiinzer (Stuttgart: Seifert, 1920). 12. The great majority of extant Laban drawings from before his exile - and it is a large number of them - are deposited in the Tanzarchiv in Leipzig.

  • 13. See Dörr, Rudolf von Laban, 2: 156-201. This dissertation provides the most comprehen- sive description and collection of evidence concerning Laban's choreography.

  • . 14. See Rudolf Lammel, Der moderne Tanz (Berlin: Oestergaard, 1928) for a wide range of descriptions of the work done by Laban's disciples. ' 15. Die Sch6nheit, 22, no. 1 (1926), devoted an entire issue to Laban and his disciples. Die Schonheit was perhaps the most prestigious of all Nacktkultur journals in the 1920s. But numer- ous other Nacktkultur publications also featured articles and photo displays on Laban's cult. See Karl Toepfer, "One Hundred Years of Nakedness in German Performance," The Drama Review (TDR), no. 180 (Winter 2003), pp. 144-88.

  • 16. Laban apparently notated a couple of movement choir exercises, but as far as I know, these pieces have never been reconstructed, presumably because Laban treated them as exercises in notation. But during the 1920s, exercises assumed much greater significance as "performance" than they do today, and exercises then were probably just as interesting, if not more so, than carefully choreographed works. 17. Major group dance works for the theatre between 1930-1932 came from Kurt Jooss, Lola Rogge, Olga Knack-Brandt, Margarete Wallmann, Hans Weidt, Lizzie Maudrick, Heinrich Krol- ler, and Trudi Schoop, among others. See Karl Toepfer, Empire of Ecstasy: Nudity and Move- ment in German Body Culture, 1910-1935 (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1997).

  • 18. See Lilian Karina and Marion Kant, Tanz unierm Hakenkreuz (Berlin: Henschel, 1999), pp. 188-91, which quotes from Goebbels Diaries, entries for December 14 and 19, 1939 and Oc- tober 11, 1940, wherein he discloses his dissatisfaction with the German dance culture and then with dance itself as an instrument of "philosophy."

  • 19. Major descriptions of the life and work of Mary Wigman include Hedwig Muller, Mary ' Wigman: Le6en und Werk der grossen Tdnzerin (Weinheim: Quadriga, 1986); Susan Manning, , Ecstasy and the Demon: Feminism and Nationalism in the Dances of Mary Wigman (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1993); Rudolf Bach, Das Mary Wigman-Werk (Dresden: Reissner 1935); Rudolf Delius, Mary Wigman (Dresden: Reissner, 1925); Wallmann's work before 1933

  • is not well documented, even by herself in her 1976 memoir, Margarita Wallmann,. Les balcons du ciel (Paris: Laffont, 1976). See Toepfer Empire of Ecstasy, pp. 290-91. 20. Lammed, Der moderne Tanz, pp. 144-70.

  • 21. On Jooss, see A. V. Coton,. The New Ballet (London: Dobson, 1946); Anna and Hermann Markard, Jooss (Cologne: Ballet-Biihnen, 1985); Susan Walther, The Dance of Death: Kurt Jooss and the Weimar Years (London: Harwood 1994); and The Dance Theatre of Kurt Jooss (London: Harwood, 1994); also Toepfer, Empire of Ecstasy, pp. 270-77.

  • 22. Stockemann, Lola Rogge: Ein Leben filr den Ausdruckstanz.

  • 23. For more detailed discussion of GOnther, see Michael Kugler, ed., Elementarer Tanz - Elementare Musik, Die Ciinther-Schule Miinchen 1924 bis 1944 (Mainz: Schott, 2002) and Die Methode Jaques-Dalcroze und das Orff-Schulwerk Elementare Musikabung (Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 2000); and Karl Toepfer, "The Aristocratic City: The Dance Aesthetic of Dorothee Giin- ther and the Political Legacy of Francois Delsarte." Mime Journal. Forthcoming. Gunther pub- lished prolifically in the 1920s, but her most comprehensive statement was Der Tanz als Bew- " gungsphiinomen (Reibek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1962). Elizabeth Selden The Dancers Quest: Essays on the Resthetic of the Contemporary Dance (Berkeley: Univ. of Califomia Press, 1935), pp. 176-83 provides an enthusiastic American perspective on Ounther. For more on Lex, see Abraham Anke and Roni Haft, Maja Lex (Dusseldorf: Graphische Werkstatt, 1986).

  • 24. Information about Gertz in the 1920s is maddeningly difficult to excavate. The most sig- nificant sources include Jenny Gertz, "Tanz und Kind," Die Schdnheit, 22, no..2 (1926), 49-61 and Use Loesch, Mit Leib und Seele (Berlin: Henschel. 1990). 1 am much indebted to Berlin dance scholar Evelyn Dorr for providing me with a transcript of Loesch's essay in the Leipzig Dance Archive, which she sent as an attachment to a June 11, 2003 email.

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