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1. The views of Fritz. Giese, Girlkultur.Vergleichezwischenamerikanischemundeu-ropaischemRhythmusundLebensgefiihl (Munich: Delphin. 1925) and Siegfried Kracauer, TheMassOrnament.'WeimarEssays (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. 1995 [1926-1932]) - emerge again in Reinhard Klooss and Thomas Reuter, K6rperbilder:MenschenornamenteinRe-vnetheaterundRevuefilm (Frankfurt am Main: Syndikat. 1980). Apparently the idea that the cho- rus line represents a "fascist," totalitarian, or capitalist aesthetic does not apply to the group syn- chronicity of ballet, but only to group movement in nightclub or music hall shows.
2. Major sources of information about Isadora Duncan appear in Ann Daly, DoneintoDance:IsadoraDuncaninAmerica (Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1995); Doree Duncan, Carol Pratl, and Cynthia Splatt, eds., LifeintoArt:IsadoraDuncnnandNerWorld (New York: Norton, 1993); Peter Kurth, Isadora:A SensationalLife (Boston: Little, Brown, 2001 Isadora Duncan, MyLife (New York: Boni and Liveright, 1927); Frank-Manuel Peter, ed., IsadoraandElisabethDuncaninGermany (Cologne: Wienand, 2000). 3. On Elisabeth Duncan, see Frank-Manuel Peter and Rainer Stamm, "The Rhythmic Forma- ' tion and Free Spiritual development of All Forces ... The Elisabeth Duncan School within the network of the Folkwang Impulse," in Peter, ed., IsadoraandElizabethDuncaninGermany, pp. l28-43; Lore Lindig, "Interesting, Somewhat Adventurous Years: Memories of the Duncan school period in Klessheim near Salzburg," ibid., pp. 144-73); Walther Heun, "Die Elisabeth
Duncan Schule," In Gunhild Oberzaucher-Schüllcr, ed., 4usdruckstanz (Wilhelmshaven: Noet- zel, 1992), pp. 224-32; Max Merz, "Die Emeuerung des Lebens- und KörpergefLih1s," in Ludwig Pallat and Franz Hilker, eds., KiinstlerischeK6rperschulung. (Breslau: Hirt, 1923), pp. 14-27; Emst Schur, DermoderneTanz (Munich: Lammers, 1910). 4. On Stebbins and Delsarte, see Nancy Lee Chaifa. Ruyter, TheCulaivationofBodyandMindinNineteenth-CenturyAmericanDelsartism (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999); Genevieve Stebbins, DelsarteSystemofExpression, 6th ed. (New York: Werner, 1902).
5. Mensendieck's chief publications include the following: KörperkulturderFrau (Munich: Bruckmann, 1906); StandardsofFemaleBeauty (New York: Schob and Wisser, 1919); Funk-tionellesFrauenturnen (Munich: Bruckmann, 1923); Bewegungsprobleme,dieGestaltung .. schonerAnne (Munich: Bruckmann, 1927); AnmutderBewegungimtaglichenLeben (Munich: Bruckmann, 1927); It'sUptoYou (New York: Mensendieck Main School, 1931 ). 6. Karel Pospisil, ed., Zakladyrytmickehotelocvikusokolskeho (Prague: Telocvcne Jednoty Sokol. 1928); Elfriede Feudel,.Rhythmik.TheorieundPraxisderkdrperldch-musikalischen
7. Karl L.orenz, ed., WegenachHellerau (Dresden: Hellerau, 1994).
8. Edmund Stadler, "Theater und Tanz in Ascona," in Harald Szeemann, ed., MonteVerita.BergderWahrheit (Milan: Electa, 1979), pp. 126-35.
9. Toepfer, "One Hundred Years of Nakedness in German Performance," ibid., pp. 144-88 10. For descriptions of Laban's life and work in Ascona, see Giorgio Wolfensberger, ed., ., . SuzannePerrortet.EinbewegtesLeben (Bern: Benteli, 1990); Edmund Stadler, "Theater und ' "' Tanz in Ascona," in Szeemann, ed., MonteVerita.BergderWahrheit, pp. 126-35. However, the most comprehensive account of Laban's life and career before 1936 is the immense dissertation by Evelyn Dorr. Rudolf vonLaban.LebenundWerkdesKanstiers(1879-1936), 2 vols: 1. Bi- ografie and 2. Konstlerisches Werk, dissertation, Humboldt Universitat, Berlin. 1998.
11. The best examples of Laban's "theoretical" writing in the 1920s include DesKindesGymnastikundTanz (Oldenburg: Stalling 1926); GymnastikundTanz (Oldenburg: Stalling 1926); Choreographie (Jena: Diederichs, 1926). But see also DieWelldesTiinzer (Stuttgart: Seifert, 1920). 12. The great majority of extant Laban drawings from before his exile - and it is a large number of them - are deposited in the Tanzarchiv in Leipzig.
13. See Dörr, Rudolf vonLaban, 2: 156-201. This dissertation provides the most comprehen- sive description and collection of evidence concerning Laban's choreography.
. 14. See Rudolf Lammel, DermoderneTanz (Berlin: Oestergaard, 1928) for a wide range of descriptions of the work done by Laban's disciples. ' 15.DieSch6nheit, 22, no. 1 (1926), devoted an entire issue to Laban and his disciples. DieSchonheit was perhaps the most prestigious of all Nacktkultur journals in the 1920s. But numer- ous other Nacktkultur publications also featured articles and photo displays on Laban's cult. See Karl Toepfer, "One Hundred Years of Nakedness in German Performance," TheDramaReview(TDR), no. 180 (Winter 2003), pp. 144-88.
16. Laban apparently notated a couple of movement choir exercises, but as far as I know, these pieces have never been reconstructed, presumably because Laban treated them as exercises in notation. But during the 1920s, exercises assumed much greater significance as "performance" than they do today, and exercises then were probably just as interesting, if not more so, than carefully choreographed works. 17. Major group dance works for the theatre between 1930-1932 came from Kurt Jooss, Lola Rogge, Olga Knack-Brandt, Margarete Wallmann, Hans Weidt, Lizzie Maudrick, Heinrich Krol- ler, and Trudi Schoop, among others. See Karl Toepfer, EmpireofEcstasy:NudityandMove-mentinGermanBodyCulture,1910-1935 (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1997).
18. See Lilian Karina and Marion Kant, TanzuniermHakenkreuz (Berlin: Henschel, 1999), pp. 188-91, which quotes from Goebbels Diaries, entries for December 14 and 19, 1939 and Oc- tober 11, 1940, wherein he discloses his dissatisfaction with the German dance culture and then with dance itself as an instrument of "philosophy."
19. Major descriptions of the life and work of Mary Wigman include Hedwig Muller, Mary ' Wigman:Le6enundWerkdergrossenTdnzerin (Weinheim: Quadriga, 1986); Susan Manning, , EcstasyandtheDemon:FeminismandNationalismintheDancesofMaryWigman (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1993); Rudolf Bach, DasMaryWigman-Werk (Dresden: Reissner 1935); Rudolf Delius, MaryWigman (Dresden: Reissner, 1925); Wallmann's work before 1933
is not well documented, even by herself in her 1976 memoir, Margarita Wallmann,. Lesbalconsduciel (Paris: Laffont, 1976). See Toepfer Empireof Ecstasy, pp. 290-91. 20. Lammed, DermoderneTanz, pp. 144-70.
21. On Jooss, see A. V. Coton,. TheNewBallet (London: Dobson, 1946); Anna and Hermann Markard, Jooss (Cologne: Ballet-Biihnen, 1985); Susan Walther, TheDanceofDeath:KurtJoossandtheWeimarYears (London: Harwood 1994); and TheDanceTheatreofKurtJooss (London: Harwood, 1994); also Toepfer, EmpireofEcstasy, pp. 270-77.
23. For more detailed discussion of GOnther, see Michael Kugler, ed., ElementarerTanz -ElementareMusik,DieCiinther-SchuleMiinchen1924bis1944 (Mainz: Schott, 2002) and DieMethodeJaques-DalcrozeunddasOrff-SchulwerkElementareMusikabung (Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 2000); and Karl Toepfer, "The Aristocratic City: The Dance Aesthetic of Dorothee Giin- ther and the Political Legacy of Francois Delsarte." MimeJournal. Forthcoming. Gunther pub- lished prolifically in the 1920s, but her most comprehensive statement was DerTanzalsBew- " gungsphiinomen (Reibek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1962). Elizabeth Selden TheDancersQuest:EssaysontheRestheticof theContemporaryDance (Berkeley: Univ. of Califomia Press, 1935), pp. 176-83 provides an enthusiastic American perspective on Ounther. For more on Lex, see Abraham Anke and Roni Haft, MajaLex (Dusseldorf: Graphische Werkstatt, 1986).
24. Information about Gertz in the 1920s is maddeningly difficult to excavate. The most sig- nificant sources include Jenny Gertz, "Tanz und Kind," DieSchdnheit, 22, no..2 (1926), 49-61 and Use Loesch, MitLeibundSeele (Berlin: Henschel. 1990). 1 am much indebted to Berlin dance scholar Evelyn Dorr for providing me with a transcript of Loesch's essay in the Leipzig Dance Archive, which she sent as an attachment to a June 11, 2003 email.