1. I wish to thank Stephen Hartke for his comments on this article before its publication, Ritchie Spencer for his assistance with the illustrations, and the company of dancers without whose hard and devoted work the research presented here would not have been possible - Margo Caslavka (ballet mistress), Abel Delgado (musical consultant), Sarah Smith (bride), Greg Mooney (groom), Jennifer Boling, Jessica Clague, Yvonne Gaspar, Cori Haisler, Christina Kane- las, Claudia Valencia, Ivette Michelle Badgley, Kim Culotta, Alfedo Gutierrez, Laura Hummasti, Jennifer Kaplan, Nicole Marusiak, Lewis Stevenson, and Kai Young. 2. Stephen Hartke, Professor of Composition at the University of Southern California, earned degrees in composition from Yale, the University of Pennsylvania, and the University of Cali- fornia, Santa Barbara. His music has received major performances by such groups as the New York Philharmonic, the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the London Symphony Orchestra, the BBC Philharmonic, and the Moscow State Philharmonic. Among his many awards are those from the American Academy of Arts and Letters, the American Academy in Rome, the Fulbright Senior Scholars Program, and the Gugenheim Foundation. In 2004, he won the prestigious Charles Ives Award that allows him to devote his time exclusively to composing for three years. His music is performed worldwide and is available on compact discs. In Fall 2001, Stephen and I co-taught a special seminar on "Stravinsky and the Dance," also funded by the Arts Initiative.
I . 3. Sally Banes, DancingWornen:FemaleBodiesonStage (New York: Routledge, 1998), p. 109. 4. Robert Craft, Stravinsky:Glimpsesofa Life (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992), p. 346.
5. Nancy Van Norman Baer, BronislavaNijinska:A Dancer'sLegacy (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 1986), p. 36. 6. Leslie Satin, Rev. of PastForward,TheatreJournal, 54, no. 2 (May 2002), 317.
7. Thomas Jensen Hines, CollaborativeForm:StudiesintheRelationsof theArts (Kent, Ohio: Kent State Univ. Press, 1991), pp. 170-71. 8. Lawrence Sullivan, "LesNoces: The American Premiere." DanceResearchJournal,14, nos. 1-2 (1981/1982), 3. 9.Ibid., p. 3. When the composition is performed as a ballet, the music is rarely live, in part because Stravinsky's unusual orchestration does not rely upon normally constituted groups of musicians. 10. Craft, Stravinsky:GlimpsesofaLife, pp. 336, 347; Stephen Walsh, Stravinsky:ACreativeSpring (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999), p. 241; Simon Karlinsky, "Igor Stravinsky and Russian Preliterate Theater," in ConfrontingStravinsky, ed. Jann Pasler (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1986), pp. 8-9. 1 I . Walsh, Stravinsky:ACreativeSpring, pp. 238-54.
12. Stephen Weinstock, "Gontcharova [sick, Nijinska, and Stravinsky: The Evolution of LesNonces."DanceMagazine (April 198 1), p. 75. 13. Craft, Stravinsky:GlimpsesojaLife, p. 336. 14. Louis Andriessen and Elmer Sch6nberger, TheApollonianClockwork, trans. Jeff Ham- burg (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1989), p. 154. 15. Craft,Stravinsky:Glimpsesoflife, p. 343. 16. Ibid.,p. 236. 17. Drue Fergison, "Bringing LesNoces to the Stage," in TheBalletsRussetsandItsWorld, ed. Lynn Garafola and Nancy Van Norman Baer (New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press, 1999), p. 170. 18. N. Gontcharova [sic], "The Metamorphosis of LesNoces," trans. Claudia Waters, com- mentary by Weinstock, DanceMagazine, 73 (DATE?). ` 19. Ibid., p,'"74.
20. Weinstock, "Gontcharova, Nijinska, and Stravinsky," p. 72. 21. Bronislava Nijinska, "Creation of LesNoces," trans. and introd. Jean M. Serafetinides and Irina Nijinska, DanceMagazine (Dec. 1974), 59-60. 22. Weinstock, "Gontcharova [sic], Nijinska, and Stravinsky," p. 74. 23. Nijinska, "Creation of LesNoces," p. 59. 24. A number of participants in the Arts Initiative project - Yvonne Gaspar (soloist dancer), Margo Caslavka (ballet mistress), Sarah Smith (dancer/bride) and Stuart Mitchell (ac- tor/Stravinsky) among them received academic credit for their work on TheWedding. All these students wrote analytical papers about the production. Their quotations in this article are from their papers.
25. Nijinska, "Creation of LesNoces," p. 59. 26. Lynn Garafola, "Bronislava Nijinska: A Legacy Uncovered," WomenandPerformance, 3, no. 2 (1987/1988), 82-86. 27. Bronislava Nijinska, "On Movement and the School of Movement," in Baer, Legacy,p. 87. 28. Ibid., p. 19. 29. Nicoletta.Misler, "A Choreological Laboratory," Experiment, 2 (1996), 170-72. 30. Garafola identifies "Soviet analogues" in LesNoces by relating the acrobatics to the Blue Blouse troupes and the pyramids of bodies to Meierkhol'd's biomechanics. "Who knows,"
Garafola wonders, "how many of the ballet's other startling configurations had their origins in the movement experiments of early Soviet directors" Lynn Garafola, Diaghilev'sBalletsRusses (New York: Da Capo Press, 1989), pp. 126-27. 31. Baer, Legacy,p. 19. 32. 'æronislava Nijinska: Dancers Speak," BalletReview, 18 no. 4 (Winter 1986), 24. 33. Nina Tikhonova, Devushkavsinem (Moscow: Artist, rezhisser, teatr, 1992), p. ]25. All translations from this source are mine. 34. "Bronislava Nijinska: Dancers Speak," p. 35. 35. Sally Banes compares this sculptural image to the "pyramid of skulls in the painter Vasily Vereshchagin's nineteenth-century painting The ApotheosisofWar," a comparison that suggests how "the Russian wedding rite is virtually a funeral rite for the woman" (pp. 113-14). For me, however, a comparison with Klimt seems more apt, not only because of TheVirgin's subject, but also because, in scene two, the groom's mother blesses her son with a gesture that also recalls the inclined heads in other Klimt paintings such as TheKùs. 36. Baer, Legacy, p. 20.
3'7.Ibid.,p. 19. 38. Nijinska, "Creation ofLesNoces," p. 59. 39. Nijinska, "On Movement and the School of Movement," p. 86. 40. Nijinska, "Creation of LesNoces," p. 59. 41. Garafola, Diaghilev'sBalletsRusses, pp. 127, 122.
42. Nijinska, "Creation of LesNoces," p. 59. 43. Serge Lifar, SergeDiaghilev:HisLife,HisWork,HisLegend (New York: Da Capo Press, 1976), p. 169. 44. Nijinska, "Creation of LesNoces," p. 59. 45.Ibid., p. 61. 1. 46. Think, for example, of Picasso's designs for Parade in 1917, which overshadowed Sa- tie's music and actively hampered Massine's choreography. 47. Drue Fergison, "Bringing LesNoces to the Stage," in TheBalletsRu.ssesandItsWorld, eds. Lynn Garafola and Nancy Van Norman Baer (New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press, 1999), p. 171. 48. Normally a School of Theatre production rehearses for five or six weeks. Given the diffi- cult music and idiosyncratic choreography, our dancers rehearsed for five months. I held audi- tions in April 2001 and began dance rehearsals in late August for our opening in February 2002.
We treated rehearsals as a class, meeting twice a week in three-hour sessions. In the last month of rehearsal, the dancers worked every day. The musicians rehearsed independently. We met them only once in the rehearsal hall where Stephen and 1 set the tempi with the conductor. The actors joined the company for the last six weeks of the rehearsal period. 49. Igor Stravinsky and Robert Craft, RetrospectiveandConclusions (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1969), p. 110. 50. Igor Stravinsky, AnAutobiogrnphy (New York: W. W. Norton, 1936), p. 72. 5 1. Ibid., p. 61. 52. Stravinsky and Craft, RetrospectiveandConclusions,p. 119.
53. roger Shattuck, "The Devil's Dance: Stravinsky's Corporal Imagination," in ConfrontingStravinsky, ed. Jann Pasler (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1986), pp. 82-88; Charles M. Joseph, "The Making of Agon," in Dance foraCity, ed. Lynn Garafola with Eric Fone (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1999), pp. 99-117; Drue Fergison speculates about whether Stravinsky had a hand in influencing the choreography of Svadebka; he himself had claimed as much in a newspaper interview that followed its premiere (p. 176). . 54. Lifar, SergeDiaghilev, p. 169. 55. Nijinska, "Creation of LesNoces." p. 61. 56. Tikhonova, Devushkadsinem, p. 126. 57. Nijinska, "Creation of LesNoces," p. 59. A pasdebounce is a fundamental, classical movement that is composed of three small steps.
58. Sono Osato, DistantDances (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980), p. 99. • 59. Ibid.,p. 100. 60. Lifar, SergeDiaghifev, p. 170. Garafola describes this downward emphasis in the chore- ography as a depiction of women who move "as if weighted by centuries of toil" (BalfetsRusses, p. 128).
61. Nancy Van Norman Baer, "The Choreographic Career of Bronislava Nijinska," Experiment, 2 (1996), 66. 62. Satin, Rev. of PastForward,TheatreJournal, 54, no. 2 (May 2002), 317 63. In 1999 Dora Krannig (formerly principal ballerina with the Royal Ballet Company, London) and I had reconstructed Vaslav Nijinsky's L ApresMidid'unFaune. Supported by the Fund for Innovative Undergraduate Teaching at the University of Southern California, the pro- ject explored the role that Nijinska had played in the ballet's creation in 1910 and its reconstruc- tion in 1922. In both these historical moments, Nijinska had danced the title role. We therefore cast a woman as the faun in order to examine precisely how a female body would impact the bal-
let. See Camicke and Krannig, "Nijinska Dances the Faun: Revisioning Nijinsky's L'Apr�sMidid'unFaune," in Proceedingsof theHawaiiInternationalConferenceonArtsandHumanities,2004. 64. Sharon Marie Carnicke, TheTheatricalInstinctNikolaiEvreinovandtheRussianTheatreof theEarlyTwentiethCentury (New York: Peter Lang, 1989), p. 17. 65. Bonnie Oda Homsey,."Capturing Dances from the Past," in EnvisioningDanceonFilmandVideo, ed. Judy Mitoma (New York: Routledge, 2002), p. 123. 66. Along with the sources cited in this article, we also referenced a video tape ofLesNoces as performed by the Paris Opera Ballet: ParisDancesDiaghilev. Electra Nonesuch Dance Collection (An NVC Arts, La Sept Co-production with Arts and Entertainment Cable Network) (New York: Time, Warner, 1992). Serge Lifar's leadership of the Paris Opera Ballet (1930-1958) created a direct link to the original BalletsRusses. He had been Diaghilev's last cherished dancer, had studied with Nijinska, and performed in the 1923 premiere of LesNoces. The production on this recording was staged in 1976 and filmed in 1990. 67. Because Stravinsky had initially envisioned a production in which all the musicians would be seen on stage along with the dancers, he convinced Diaghilev to solve the problem by placing two pianos on each side of the stage (Baer, Legacy, pp. 33-34). After the premiere, how- ever, Diaghilev used theatres with larger pits that could hold the pianos. 68. Igor Stravinsky, TheWedding:VocalScore, trans. D. Millar Craig (tondo: Chester Mu- sic, [no date]). 69. Stravinsky himself recorded Craig's translation for Columbia Records. Craft notes that Stravinsky had twice abandoned efforts to make his own English translation of Svadebka(p. 335).
70. I did not wish to dress women as men; I felt that travesty would too radically change the spirit of the piece. 71. Baer, Legacy, p. 34. 72. Nijinska, "Creation of LesNoces," p. 59. 73. Garafola, BalletsItusses, p. 127
74. Banes, DancingWomen,p. 113. 75. Garafola, BalletsRusses, p. 128. 76. Nijinska, Memoirs, p. 169. 77. Lynn Garafola, "Choreography by Nijinska," BalletReview, 20, no. 4 (Winter 1992), 68. 78. Lifar, SergeDiaghitev, p. 256.
79. Fergison, "Bringing LesNaces to the Stage," pp. 186-87. , . 80. Banes, DancingWomen,p. 110. . 81. Ibid.,p. 115. 82. (Garafola, BalletsRusses,p. 115. 83. Lifar, SergeDiaghilev, p. 256. 84. Banes, DancingWomen,p. 116.
8 5.Ibid., p. 115. 86. Ibid., p. 116.
87. Osata, bistantl7nnces,p. 101. 88. Weinstock, "Gontcharova [sic], Nijinska, and Stravinsky," p. 73.