"THERE IS SOMETHING THERE ...": THE PEREDVIZHNIKI AND WEST EUROPEAN ART

In: Experiment

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  • All translations are my own unless otherwise indicated. 1. These parallcls havc not gone unremarked. Alison Hilton, for example, writes: "Aside from the Russian settings, the work of Perov and his colleagues shows the same general concern for rural and urban poverty, alcoholism, prostitution, and other mid-nineteenth-century problems that troubled many European artists and writers." ("Scenes from Life and Contemporary History: Russian Realism of the 1870s- 1 880s," in Gabriel P. Weisberg, ed., The European Realist Tradition [Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1982], p. 188.) But such observations have rarely been analysed in depth. There are two notable exceptions: Elena Nesterova's seminal research on Franco- Russian artistic exchange in the second half of the nineteenth century in publications cited throughout these notes, and the chapter "Russkaia realisticheskaia zhivopis' vtoroi poloviny XIX veka i ee rol' v evropeiskom iskusstve" in Dmitrii V. Sarab'ianov, Russkaia zhivopis' XIX veka .sredi evropei.skikh shkol: opyt srav- nitel'nogo issledovanüa (Moscow: Sovetskii khudozhnik, 1980), pp. 107-140. The second half of Sarab'ianov's chapter compares Courbet, Menzel and Repin, following thought-provoking lines of enquiry which complemcnt those pursued here.

  • 2. For engaging research by Russian scholars on the nature of Russia's cultural po- sition between East and West, see Dmitrii V. Sarab'ianov, ed., Russkoe i.skus.stvo mezhdu zapadom i vostokom: materialy konferentsii, Moskva. Sentiabr', 1994 (Mos- cow: Gosudarstvennyi institut iskusstvoznaniia, 1997), though none of the contribu- tions deals explicitly with the art of the Peredvizhniki. 3. Elizabeth Valkenier argues that the young artists' apostasy stemmed as much from their quest for professional autonomy as it did from their frustration with aca- demic pedagogy. See Elizabeth K. Valkenier, Russian. Reali.st Art. The State and Soci- ety: The Peredvizhniki and Their Tradition (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1989), pp. 33-37. 4. For Russian artists working in Paris (the most popular destination from the 1860s onwards), see Tatiana Mojenok, Les peintres rialistes russes en France (1860-

  • 1900) (Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2003); and Elena V. Nesterova's publica- tions "K istorii russko-frantsuzskikh khudozhestvennykh sviazei," Problemy razvitüa zarubezhnogo iskusstva, 8 (1978), pp. 59-67; "Russko-frantsuzskie khudozhestvennye sviazi 60-70kh godov XIX veka," Problemy razvitüa russkogo iskusstva, 11 (1979), pp. 74-82; and "Pensionery Peterburgskoi Akademii khudozhestv vo Frantsii," Iskusstvo, 12 (1981), pp. 47-51. 1. 5. For the famous spat between Repin, Kramskoi and Stasov about the merits or otherwise of French Impressionism, see Elizabeth K. Valkenier, Ilya Repin and the World of Russian Art (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1990), pp. 59-64; David Jackson, "Westem Art and Russian Ethics: Repin in Paris, 1873-76," The Russian Re- view, 37 (July 1998), pp. 394-409; and Elena V. Nesterova, "Russko-frantsuzskie khudozhestvennye sviazi vtoroi poloviny XIX veka," in Andrei V. Tolstoi, ed., Ros- sia Evropa: iz istorü russko-evropeiskikh khudozhestvennykh sviazei XVIII-XX vv. Sbornik statei (Moscow: Nauchno-issledovatel'skii institut teorii i istorii izo- brazitel'nykh iskusstv Rossiiskoi akademii khudozhestv, 1995), pp. 141-45. For a more general comparison of the Peredvizhniki and the Impressionists, see N. A. Dmitrieva, "Peredvizhniki i Impressionisti," in E. A. Borisova, G. G. Pospelov and G. lu. Sternin, eds., Iz istorü russkogo isku.s.stva vtoroi poloviny XIX nachala XX veka: sbornik issledovanü i publikatsü (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1978), pp. 18-41.

  • 6. See Ukazatel ' .sobranüu kartin i redkikh proizvedenü khudozhestva, prinadlez- hashchikh chlenam Imperatorskogo doma i chastnym litsam Peterhurga: vystavka 1861 goda (St. Petersburg: Gogenfel'den and Co., 1861). 7. See Katalog kollektsü khudozhestvennykh proizvedenü, postupiv.shikh po zaveshchanüu Grafa N. A. Kusheleva-Bezborodko, v sobstvennost ' Imperatorskoi S- Peterburgskoi Akademie khudozhestv (St. Petersburg: Gogenfel'den and Co., 1863); and Rosalind P. Gray, "The Golitsyn and Kushelev-Bezborodko Collections and their Role in the Evolution of Public Art Galleries in Russia," Oxford Slavonic Papers, NS, 31 (1998), pp. 51-67.

  • 8. For questions concerning the authorship of this painting, see Irina Kuznetsova and Elena Sharnova, Frantsiia: XVI pervoi poloviny XIX veka: sohranie zhivopisi (Moscow: Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts/Krasnaia ploshchad', 2001), p. 355. 9. See Rosalind P. Gray, "Muscovite Patrons of European Painting: The Collec- tions of Vasily Kokorev, Dmitry Botkin and Sergei Tretyakov," Journal of the History of Collections, 10, no. 2 (1998), pp. 189-98. 10. For the representation of foreign artists in Russia slightly later, at the turn of the ccntury, see the chapter "Zarubczhnoe iskusstvo v Rossii," in Grigorii Iu. Stemin, Russkaia khudozhestvennaia kul 'tura vtoroi poloviny XlX-nachala XX veka (Moscow: Sovetskii khudozhnik, 1984), pp. 84-117. 11. Letter to I. I. Shishkin, October 18, 1859, in Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin: perepiska, dnevnik, sovremenniki o khudozhnike, I. N. Shuvalova, ed. (Leningrad: Iskusstvo, 1978), p. 71. 12. For the latest mention, see David Jackson, The Wanderers and Critical Real- ism in Nineteenth-Century Russian Painting (Manchester: Manchester Univ. Press, 2006), p. 32 (though Shishkin dclayed his journey not for three years, as Jackson claims, but for seventeen months).

  • 13. Letter to V. V. Stasov, July 21, 1876, in I. N. Kramskoi, Pis'ma v dvukh to- makh (Leningrad: Gos. izdatel'stvo izobrazitel'nykh iskusstv, 1937), 2: 52. 14. See the testimony of Lev Zhemchuzhnikov, Mikhail Klodt and others cited in Elena V. Nesterova, "Russko-frantsuzskie khudozhestvennye sviazi vtoroi poloviny XIX veka," kandidatskaia dissertation, I. E. Repin Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture at the USSR Academy of Arts, Leningrad, 1981, p. 29. 15. Elizabeth K. Valkenier, "Opening up to Europe: the Peredvizhniki and the Miriskussniki Respond to the West," in Rosalind P. Blakesley and Susan E. Reid, eds., Russian Art and the West: A Century of Dialogue in Painling, Architecture and the Decorative Arts (DeKalb: Northern Illinois Univ. Press, 2006), p. 47.

  • 16. Letter to 1. V. Volkovskii, January 3, 1864, in Ivan lvanovich Shishkin, Shu- valova, ed., p. 82. 17. Letter to the Council of the Academy of Arts, July 8, 1864, in A. A. Fedorov- Davydov et al., eds., Z. Perov: dokumenty, pis 'ma i rasskazy, katalog proizvedenii, bibliogrqfiia (Moscow: Izogiz, 1934), pp. 94-95. 18./��., p. 94. 19. Letter to 1. E. Repin, October 8, 1873, in Kramskoi, Pis'ma v dvukh tomakh, 1: 201.

  • 20.Ibid., p. 202.

  • 21. Letter to N. A. Aleksandrov, August 11, 1877, ibid., 2: 93. 22. See Mojenok, Les peintres realistes russes en France, p. 87. 23. The Imperial Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg sent approximately forty stu- dents to study at the Düsseldorf Academy in the period from 1829 to 1895. See Bet- tina Baumgcrtcl, "Diussel'dorfskaia shkola zhivopisi: nekotorye aspekty kul'turnogo vliianiia. Vzaimootnoshcniia mezhdu russkimi i nemetskimi khudozhnikami," in Garmnnüa i knntrapunkt. Rossüa - Germanüa. Zhivopis'. XIX vek (exh. cat., Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow: Khudozhnik i kniga, 2003), p. 39, and the sources cited therein. For the pedagogical system which they would have encountered there, see William Vaughan, "Cultivation and control: the "Masterclass" and the Düsseldorf Academy in the nineteenth century," in Rafacl Cardoso Denis and Colin Trodd eds., Art and the Academy in the Nineteenth Century (Manchester: Manchester Univ. Press, 2000), pp. 150-63. 24. Shishkin apart, Kamenev, Iakobi and Nikolai Dmitriev-Orenburgskii worked for lengthy periods in Düsseldorf (Dmitricv-Orenburgskii studying with Knaus and Benjamin Vautier), and Perov, Miasoedov and Viacheslav Shvarts visitcd thc city. 25. Letter to 1. V. Volkovskii, February 27, 1865, in Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin, Shu- valova, ed., p. 106.

  • 26. Dücker rcplaced Oswald Achenbach as professor of landscape painting in the Düsseldorf Academy in 1874. For a summary of his role as a point of contact between Russia and the Düsseldorf school, see Baumgertel, "Diussel'dorfskaia shkola zhi- vopisi," p. 42. 27. Letter to E. G. Dücker, March 1869, in Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin, Shuvalova, ed., p. 124. 28. See Nina Lübbren, Rural Artists' Colonies in Europe 1870-1910 (Manchester: Manchester Univ. Press, 2001), pp. 99-101.

  • 29. Ruskin and the Pre-Raphaelites were championed in Russia by Zinaida Ven- gerova, who wrote both articles on them, and entries for The Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopaedic Dictionary which was published from 1890. Sergei Diaghilev wrote on Ruskin in thc first two issues of Mir iskusstva in 1898 and 1899 and published Ruskin's essay on the Pre-Raphaelites the following year, and Mikhail Nesterov also expressed his enthusiasm for Ruskin's views, particularly in correspondence with his friend Aleksandr Turygin in 1897. For Nesterov's interest, see V. P. Shestakov, Pre- rafaelity: mechtv o krasote (Moscow: Progress-traditsiia, 2004), pp. 185-86. For as- pects of the reception of Ruskin's ideas in Russia more generally, see Rosalind P. Blakesley, "'The Venerable Artist's Fiery Speeches Ringing in My Soul': The Artistic Impact of William Morris and his Circle in Nineteenth-Century Russia," in Grace Brockington, ed., Internationalism and the Arts (Oxford: Peter Lang Publishers, forth- coming); Rachel Polonsky, English Literature and the Russian Aesthetic Renai.ssance (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998), pp. 141-45; and Sternin, Russkaia khu- dozhestvennaia kul 'tura, pp. 97-98. 30. Letter to E. G. Dücker, March 1869, in Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin, Shuvalova, ed., p. 123.

  • 31. Letter to N. A. Aleksandrov, August 11, 1877, in Kramskoi, Pis'ma v dvukh tomakh, 2: 93. 32. See Mojenok, Les peintres realistes russes en France, pp. 89-112; and Rosa- lind P. Blakesley, "Promoting a Pan-European Art: Aleksei Bogoliubov as Artistic Mediator betwcen East and West," in Blakesley and Reid, eds., Russian Art and the West, pp. 21-44. 33. Letter to A. S. Suvorin, February 27, 1885: Kramskoi, Pis'ma v dvukh tomakh, 2: 354.

  • 34. Levitan copied Corot's paintings, both for his own purposes and to order. See I. S. Zil'berstein and V. A. Samkov, eds., Konstanten Korovin vspominaet, 2nd ed. (Moscow: Izobrazitel'noe iskusstvo, 1990), p. 363; and Sergei Glagol' [Sergei Golou- shev] and Igor' Grabar', zack 11 'ich Levitan: Zhizn' i tvorche.stvo (Moscow: 1. Kne- bel', 1913), p. 42. For the other Russian artists, Repin, Serov, Korovin, Shishkin, Klodt and Vereshchagin among them, who participated in thc Munich Secession exhi- bitions, see V. Turchin, "Germaniia i Rossiia. Esteticheskie paralleli i dialog," Iskusstvo (1996/97), p. 8. 35. Anna I. Troianovskaia, "Moi vospominaniia o Levitane," in A. A. Fedorov- Davydov, ed., 1. 1. Levitan: pis'ma, dokumenty, vo.spominaniia (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1956), p. 188. For brief consideration of Levitan's work in an European context, see Kira Dolinina, "`Eyes Wide Shut': Landscape Painting in Nineteenth-century Russia and France," in David Jackson and Patty Wageman, eds., Russian Gandscape (Scho- ten: BAI, 2003), pp. 112-13. 36. See Kuznetsova and Shamova, Frantsüa: XVI-pervoi poloviny XIX veka, p. 396.

  • 37. Letter to Polenov's family, London, May 22/June 3, 1875, in E. V. Sakharova, ed., Vasilii Dmitrievich Polenov: pis'ma, dnevniki, vospominanüa (Moscow/Lenin- grad: Iskusstvo, 1948), p. 96. 38. See, for example, Nesterova, "Russko-frantsuzskie khudozhestvennye sviazi vtoroi poloviny XIX veka" (1981), pp. 67-76; and Blakesley, "Promoting a Pan- European Art," pp. 30-36. 39. Apparently for Surikov, Manet was "better than any idea [vyshe vsiakoi idei]." Letter from N. V. Polenova to E. D. Polenova, Rome, February 11/23, 1884, in E. V. Sakharova, ed., Zog<7/! Dmitrievich Polenov. Elena Dmitrievna Polenova. Khronika sem'i khudozhnikov (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1964), p. 338. 40. Vladimir Kemenov, Vasily Surikov (Leningrad: Aurora Art Publishers, 1979), p. 175. (Surikov's comment was recorded by M. Voloshin). For discussion of Surikov's interest in such painterly qualities - an interest which earned him the epithet "an aesthetic aristocrat" from Repin - see Jackson, The Wanderers and Critical Real- ism, p. 113.

  • 41. It is important to note though that Malkasten's membership was relatively broad, and included artists affiliated to the Academy as well as those working indc- pendently. For this catholicity, which the Prussian state encouraged in order to exert some form of control over Malkasten, see Vaughan, "Cultivation and control," p. 162.

  • 42. Fortuny's work featured in the collections of Dmitrii Botkin and Sergei i Tret'iakov, and was admired by many of the Peredvizhniki, Repin and Polenov among them. In a lctter of 1875 Kramskoi neverthcless introduced a cautionary note, damn- ing Fortuny with faint praise by branding him the embodiment of the bourgeoisie's concept of an ideal artist. See letter to I. E. Repin, September 10, 1875, in Kramskoi, Pis'ma v dvukh tnmakh, 1: 337-41. Later, the great Symbolist painter Mikhail Vrubel was nicknamed "Fortuny" by his fellow students while studying with Pavel Chistia- kov - an artist who had himself given the young Spanish painter drawing lessons in Rome in 1862. For this nexus of influence, see Mikhail Allenov, "Vrubel' i Fortuni," Voprosy iskusstvoznanüa, 2-3 (1993), pp. 41-57. It is worth noting that artists from other countries, notably Italy, were also enthralled by Fortuny at the time. See Caro- line Igra, "Reviving the Rococo: Enterprising Italian Artists in Second Empire Paris," Art History, 28, no. 3 (June 2005), pp. 340-56. 43. For these and other Franco-Russian artistic contacts in the first half of the nine- teenth century, see V. Turchin, "Russko-frantsuzskie khudozhestvennye otnoshcniia: pervaia polovina XIX veka," Sovetskoe iskusstvoznanie, 24 (1988), pp. 155-86. For Vernet's impressions during his second tour, see Horace Vernet, Lettres intimes de M. Horace Vernet pendant son voyage en Russie en 1842 et 1843 (Paris, 1856).

  • 44. For a list of which Russian artists worked in which French studios in the period 1860-1900, see Mojenok, Les peintres r�alistes russes en France, pp. 219-20. For the studio system in general as a lynchpin of artistic education in late nineteenth-century France, see John Milner, The Studios of Paris: the Capital of Art in the Late Nine- teenth Century (New Haven, CT and London: Yale Univ. Press, 1988). 45. For Vereshchagin's association with Geröme, see Vahan D. Barooshian, V V. Vereshchagin: Artist at War (Gainesville, FL: Univ. Press of Florida, 1993), pp. 14- 17. 46. Kharlamov belonged to a small group of Russian artists who had settled in France, where they mainly produced portraits in a derivative Salon style. While he and a couple of others, Yurii Leman among them, became members of the Associa- tion of Traveling Art Exhibitions, their work was second-rate, with none of the social conviction or visual panache of the likes of Repin and Kramskoi. 47. Nesterova, "Russko-frantsuzskie khudozhestvennye sviazi" (1995), p. 139.

  • 48. "Today I was at the exhibition and saw my painting, or rather my little picture, for it seemed to me so small among the great names of the art world. It is very flatter- ing [to be exhibited there]." Letter to Polenov's family, April 16/28, 1874, in Sak- harova, ed., Vasilü Dmitrievich Polenov: pis'ma, dnevniki, vospominanüa, p. 55. By 1876, however, Polenov had changed his tune. "The Salon opened recently and totally convinced me of the futility of hanging around and studying there. The French, with the exception of a small group of realists, namely Meissonier and two or three of his pupils whom 1 hold in high regard and love, are nothing more than a string of routine, self-satisfied - disons le mot - untalented artists!" Letter to M. A. Polenova, April 30/May 12, 1876, in Sakharova, ed., Kot7/7 Dmitrievich Polenov: pis'ma, dnevniki, vn.spominanüa, p. 114. 49. Letter to the Imperial Academy of Arts, May 21/9, 1864, in Fedorov-Davydov et al., cds., V. Perov, p. 94. 50. Nesterova points out that Perov did fulfil his aim to "try painting on board, like Meissonier," and offers a plausible comparison between Perov's Solitary Guitarist (1865, RM) and Meissonier's Smoker (HM). Nesterova, "Russko-frantsuzskie khu- dozhestvennye sviazi" (1981), pp. 39-41. For Meissonier's work and relationship to the Salon, see M. J. Gotlieb, The Plight of Emulation: Ernst Mei.ssonier and French Salon Painting (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1996).

  • 51. Stepan P. laremich, cd., L. N. Tnlstoi i N. N. Ges Perepiska (Mos- cow/Leningrad: Academia, 1930), p. 42. 52. Stephen F. Eisenman et al., Nineteenth Century Art: A Critical History (Lon- don: Thames and Hudson, 1995), p. 227.

  • 53. See Rosalind P. Gray, "The Real and thc Ideal in the Work of Aleksci Venet- sianov," Russian Review, 58 (Oct. 1999), pp. 655-75.

  • 54. For Savrasov's experiencc of the International Exhibition during his trip, which was sponsored by the Moscow Society of Art Lovers, see Elena Nesterova, Aleksei 5avrasov, 1830-1897 (St. Petersburg: Aurora, 2002), pp. 61-64 (though the exhibition was not held in Joseph Paxton's Crystal Palace, as Nesterova claims, but in a purpose-built edifice in South Kensington constructed on land purchased with the profits ofthe Great Exhibition of 1851). ). 55. Letter to Polenov's family, London, May 22/June 3, 1875, in Sakharova, ed., Vasilü Dmitrievich Polenov: pis'ma, dnevniki, vospominaniia, pp. 96 and 97. I use here the translation employed in Anna Bronovitskaya, "An Accidental Similarity: British Art and Russian Artists in the Late 19th and Early 20th Century," Pinakoteka, 18-19 (2004), p. 106. (Bronovitskaya wrongly dates the visit to 1878, rather than 1875.) 56. For British-Russian artistic interaction in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, see Brian Allen and Larissa Dukclskaya, eds., British Art Treasures from Russian Imperial Collection.s in the Hermitage (New Haven, CT and London: Yale Univ. Press, 1996); Anthony G. Cross, By the Banks of the Neva: Chapters from the Lives and Careers of the British in Eighteenth-Century Russia (Cambridge: Cam- bridge Univ. Press, 1997), pp. 308-13; Galina Andreeva, ed., Nezabyvaemaia Rossüa: russkie i Rossüa glazami britant.sev XVII-XIX veka (exh. cat., Tret'iakov Gallery, Moscow: Trilistnik, 1997); Galina Andreeva, "`Everything English is the mode here': Russian reactions to British painting in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centu- ries," in Christiana Payne and William Vaughan, eds., English Accents: Interactions with British Art c. 1766-1855 (London: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2004), pp. 51-77;

  • and Brian Allen, "The Russian Taste for British Painting in the Late 18th Century," Pinakoteka, 18-19 (2004), pp. 190-94. 57. See Galina Andreeva, "Pavel Mikhailovich pobyval kak obychno v Anglii .. " Tret'iakovskaia galereia, 1 (2004), pp. 20-35. (An English version of this article follows the Russian text.) 58. See Rosalind P. Blakesley, "Slavs, Brits and the question of national identity in art: Russian responses to British Painting in the mid-nineteenth Century," in Payne and Vaughan, eds., English Accents, pp. 207-14. 59. See Bronovitskaya, "An Accidental Similarity," p. 106. 60. For comparison of Perov and other Frcnch artists, Honore Daumier among them, see Rosalind P. Gray, Russian Genre Painting in the Nineteenth Century (Ox- ford: Clarendon Press, 2000), pp. 163-75; and Nesterova, "Russko-frantsuzskie khu- dozhestvennye sviazi" (1995), pp. 127-31.

  • 61. For Faed's work, including commentary on Homeless, see Julian Treuherz, Hard Times: Social Realism in Victorian Art (exh. cat., Manchester City Art Galleries, Manchester: Lund Humphries, 1987), pp. 41-46. 62. For Henner's painting, see Gabriel P. Weisberg, ed., The Realist Tradition: French Painting and Drawing 1830-1900 (exh. cat., Cleveland Museum of Art, Clcveland, OH: Indiana Univ. Press, 198 1), p. 96. The bedside vigil was also explored by, among others, Luke Fildes in The Doctor (1891, Täte Britain, London), and Po- lenov in A Sick Woman (1879, RM). See Bronovitskaya, "An Accidental Similarity," p. 108. 63. Elena V. Nesterova, "Frantsuzskoe iskusstvo v otsenkakh russkikh khu- dozhnikov 60-kh-80-kh godov XIX veka," Problemy razvitüa zarubezhnogo iskusstva, 10 (1980), p. 56.

  • 64. For my earlier consideration of these parallels, see Blakesley, "Slavs, Brits and the question of national identity in art," pp. 215-16. 65. See Susan P. Casteras, "'Weary Stitches': Illustrations and Paintings for Tho- mas Hood's "Song of the Shirt" and Other Poems," in Beth Harris, ed., Famine and Fashion: Needlewomen in the Nineteeuth Century (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2005), pp. 13-39.

  • 66. For Teste's little-known image, see B. N. Berezina, ed., Gosudarstvennyi Er- mitazh, sobranie zapadnoevropeiskoi zhivopisi: katalng. Frantsuz.skaia zhivopis': nachalo i seredina XIX veka (St. Petersburg: Iskusstvo, 1983), p. 443. 67. For the Russian enthusiasm for Bastien-Lepage, see Appendix I, "Bast'en- Lepazh i russkie khudozhniki, 1880-1890-e gg," in the notes to Andrei V. Tolstoi, "Russko-frantsuzskie khudozhestvennye sviazi kontsa XIX-nachala XIX vekov," kandidatskaia dissertation, Moscow State Univ., 1983, pp. 90-97. For Nesterov's ad-

  • miration, see S. N. Durylin, Nesterov v zhizni i tvorchestve, 2nd ed. (Moscow: Molo- daia gvardiia, 1976), pp. 119-20; Mikhail V. Nesterov, Davnie dni (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1959), pp. 199-201; and A. A. Rusakova, ed., Mikhail V. Nesterov: Iz pisem (Leningrad: Iskusstvo, 1968), pp. 34, 35, 37 and 167. 68. The 1862 International Exhibition in London was the first to include a Russian fine art section, but this only featured a handful of paintings by future Peredvizhniki, Mikhail Pctrovich Klodt's Dying Musician and lakobi's Peddler Selling Lemons among them. The display was sharply criticized by both professional and amateur commentators: Stasov derided it for not giving the Realists fair representation, and thus providing only a partial picture of the development of Russian art, while Pavel and Sergci Tret'iakov's sister Sofüa wrote: "What unpleasantly struck all of us was the humbleness and awkwardness of the Russian arrangement." Andreeva, "Pavel Mikhailovich pobyval kak obychno v Anglii ... ," p. 31. For the Russian paintings on display, see Lidiia I. Iovleva, "0 russkom khudozhestvennom otdele na Vsemimoi vystavke 1862 goda v Londone," in Andreeva, Nezabyvaemaia Rossüa, pp. 252-6. 69. Repin's Barge Haulers on the Volga was again a talking point at the Exposi- tion Universelle of 1878, with Paul Mantz and Edmond Duranty among those who commented favourably on the work. See Hilton, "Scenes from Life," p. 194. 70. For correspondence between the Association of Traveling Art Exhibitions and the commission in charge of Russia's official submission in 1878, see S. N. Gol'dshtein et al., eds., Tovarishchestvo peredvizhnykh khudozhestvennykh vy.stavok: pis'ma, dokumenty, 1869-1899 (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1987), 1: 144-47. For Kram- skoi's seminal role in spearheading this campaign, see letter to P. M. Tret'iakov, De- cember 17, 1877, ibid., p. 144. For Russia's participation in general at international exhibitions, and the way in which this shaped Russia's image abroad, see David C. Fisher, "Exhibiting Russia at the World's Fairs, 1851-1900," doctoral disscrtation, Indiana Univ., 2003.

  • 71. See "Surikov i evropeiskaia istoricheskaia kartina vtoroi poloviny XIX veka," in Sarab'ianov, Russkaia zhivopis' XIX veka sredi evropeiskikh shkol, pp. 141-65; and Elena Nesterova, The Itinerants: The Masters of Russian Realism (Boumemouth: Parkstone Publishers, 1996), p. 115. 72. See the final two chapters in Christopher Ely, This Meager Nature: Landscape and Nalional Identity in Imperial Russia (DeKalb: Northern Illinois Univ. Press, 2002), pp. 165-222.

  • 73. For Watts' portraits, see Barbara Bryant, G. F. Watts: Portraits. Fame and Beauty in Victorian Society (London: National Portrait Gallery, 2004).

  • 74. Hilton, "Scenes from Life," p. 209. 75. For the Peredvizhniki's response to French art at the turn of the century, see chapter 1, "Peredvizhniki i frantsuzskoe iskusstvo," in Tolstoi, "Russko-frantzuzskie khudozhcstvennye sviazi," pp. 11-36.

  • 76. Letter to I. N. Kramskoi, April 13, 1877, in Gol'dshtein et al., eds., Tovar- ishchestvo peredvizhnykh khudozhestvennykh vystavok, 1: 142. 77. For Stasov's role in moulding a nationalistic image of the Peredvizhniki, see Valkenier, Ru.rsian Realist Art, pp. 56-62. 78. For Alexander III's role in thc history of Russian painting, and its impact on the fortunes of the Peredvizhniki, see Valkenier, Russian Realist Art, pp. 123-27; and John O. Norman, "Alexander 111 as a Patron of Russian Art," in John O. Norman, ed., New Perspectives on Russian and Soviet Artistic Culture: Selected Papers from the Fourth World Congress for Soviet and East European Studies, Harrogate, 1990 (New York: St Martin's Press, 1994), pp. 25-40.

  • 1.IvanNikolaevichKramskoi.Pis'ma, S. N. Gol'dshtein, ed. (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1965), 1: 480-81. 2. Ibid., pp. 9-10, 11-12.

  • 3. Fedor L'vov (1820-1895), Conference Secretary of the Acadcmy (1859-65). 4. Fedor Bruni (1799-1875), Professor of History Painting at the Academy; Rector of Painting and Sculpture ( l 855-1871 ). 5. Princc Grigorii Gagarin (1810-93), Vice-President of the Academy. 6. Konstantin Ton (1794-1881), architect and professor at the Acadcmy; Rector of Architecture from 1854.

  • 7. Prince Vasilii Dolgorukov (1804-1868), Chicf of Police and Director of the Third Section of the Ministry of the Interior (1856-1866), the security police charged with public safety.

  • 8.IvanNikolaevichKramskoi.Pis'ma, 1: 483, n. 3. 9. Ibid., p. 12. 10. Nikolai Ramazanov (1818-1867), sculptor, art historian and critic, author of Materialy dlia istorii khudozhestv v Rossü (Moscow, 1863).

  • 11. Sankt-Peterburgskie vedomosti, no. 2, Jan. 3, 1864, rcproduced in Ivan Niko- laevich Kramskoi. Pis 'ma, 1: 482, n. 1. 12. The rank of Master Artist (klassnyi khudozhnik) was given to students of the Academy of Arts awarded the Large Silver Medal or the Gold Medal (Large or Small) in addition to successfully passing their exams. On the system of ranks at the academy see Elizabeth Kridl Valkenier, Ru.ssian Realist Art The State and Society (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1989), pp. 5-6. 13. Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi. Pis'ma, 1: 14-15.

  • 14. At its "Thursdays" the Artel members and invited guests gathered to draw and to read books on art and aesthetics. 15. In 1864 a second artel was organized by painter Petr Krestonostsev (b. 1837); it lasted a little over a year.

  • 16. Gol'dshtein, Ivan Nikolaevich Kram.rkoi. Zhizn' i tvorchestvo, pp. 46-47. 17. Tovarishchestvo peredvizhnykh khudozhestvennykh vystavok, 1869-1899: Pis'ma, dokumenty, S. N. Gol'dshtein, ed., V. V. Andreeva et al., comps. (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1987), 1: 51-53. Grigorii Miasoedov (1834-1911) was in Italy as a pension- er of the Academy, where he met Alexander Herzen and discussed plans to form the Association.

  • 18.Iskusstvo, 5, no. 4 (1937), pp. 82-8. 19. Nikolai Dmitriev-Orenburgskü (1837-1898), one of the fourteen secessionists, in 1870 petitioned the Academy, without his comrades' knowledge, to be sent abroad at state expense.

  • 20. IvanNikolaevichKramskoi.Prisma, 1: 89. 21. Petr Iseev (1838-1919), Conference Secretary of the Academy from 1865 to 1889; convicted of embczzling funds intended for the Church of the Savior on the Blood in 1889. (See Tovarishchestvo, 2: 542, n. 1.)

  • 22.IvanNikolaevichKramskoi.Pis'ma, 1: 508-09, n. 7. 23. Ibid., 2: 78-79.

  • 24. I. Repin, Dalekoe i blizkoe, K. Chukovskii, ed. (Moscow: Akademiia khudoz- hestv SSSR, 1960), pp. 178-80. 25. Aleksei Korzukhin, A Drunken Family Man (1861), Kiev Museum of Russian Art. 26. Vasilii Pukirev, The Unequal Marriage (1862), GTG, shows a geriatric general with an unhappy young beauty beforc thc altar. 27. Nikolai Kostomarov (1817-1885), Professor of History at the Universities of Kiev and St. Petersburg.

  • 28. Nikolai Chemyshevskii (1828-1889), leading radical, materialist political thinker and critic, arrested in 1862 and exiled to Siberia until 1883. 29. Dmitrii Pisarev (1840-1868), radical writer and social critic. 30. David Owen (1771-1858), one of the founders of socialism and the cooperative movement. The full title of the work in question is Es.says on the Formation of Human Character, published in Russian as Obrazovanie chelovecheskogo kharaktera in 1865. 31. Henry Thomas Buckle (1821-1862), progressive English historian who devised various "laws" of history in an effort to make his field a science. 32. John William Draper (1811-1882), American scientist, philosopher, physician, chemist, historian, and photographer. 33. Carl Vogt (1817-1895), German natural scientist and political figure. 34. Georg Büchner (1813-1837), German dramatist, student of medicine, and polit- ical agitator. 35. Hippolyte Taine (1828-1893), French critic and historian, the chief theoretical influence of French naturalism and one of the first practitioners of historicist criticism. Vladimir Chuiko (1839-1899), Ukrainian translator and literary critic; in the 1880s published the series "European Writers and Thinkers" in Russian translation.

  • 36. Mark Antokol'skii (1843-1902) was at this time a sculpture student at the Academy and a close friend of the Artel and later of thc Association, which he could not join formally since membership was limited to painters. 37 Source: I. N. Punina, Peferburgskaia Artel' khudozhnikov (Leningrad: Khu- dozhnik, 1966), pp. 76-8.

  • 1.Tovarishchestvo, 1: 57-58.

  • 4- G. B. Romanov, ed., Tovarishchestvo peredvizhnykh khudozhestvennykh vysta- vok, 1871-1923 gg. Entsiklopedüa (St. Petersburg: Sankt Peterburg Orkestr, 2003), pp. 7-11.

  • 5.Tovarishchestvo, 1: 71-72.

  • 6.Ihid,pp. 110- 11.

  • 7.Ibid , p. 109. 8. Ibid., pp. 334-37.

  • 9.Ibid., pp. 375-76.

  • 10.Ibid, 2: 423-24. This narrowing down of topics and their execution was met with protest by the young generation. 11. Ibid., pp. 533-38.

  • 12. See Document 8 in this section.

  • 13. The Anglo-Russian Literary Society was founded in London in 1893 by Ed- ward A. Cazalet. Its activities were conducted from the Imperial Institute, London.

  • �44. Taken from M. W. Curran, "Vladimir Stasov and the Development of Russian National Art, 1850-1906." Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1965, which draws on figures provided by Miasoedov in Document 11 of this section.

  • 15. Katalug 47-oi vystavki zhivopisi v Tsentral'nom dome prosveshcheniia i kul'tury; reproduced in R. I. Lebedev and V. N. Perel'man, eds, Bor'ba za realizm v izobrazitel'nom iskusstve v 20-kh gg. (Moscow: Sovetskii khudozhnik, 1962), p. 103. The Association's tepid commitment to thc present met with general derision and crit- icism. As a result, its younger members and exhibitors quite the Peredvizhniki to form a new group, the Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia (AKhRR), totally committed to the Revolution. Consequently, the Peredvizhniki held only one more exhibit. For more background on the fate of the Association during the war and after the revolution, see Valkenier, Russian Realist Art, pp. 137ff.

  • 1.Tnvari.shche.sfvo, I: 95. 2. Though a member of the Association, Aleksei Bogoliubov (1824-1896) was close to thc Court and official circles, supervising, among other things, the Acade- my's pensioners in Paris.

  • 3.Tovarishchestvo,1: 106-07.

  • 4. Ibid., 2: 548, n. 5.

  • 5. The 1874 London International Exhibition of Art and Industry.

  • 6.Tovarishche.stvo, 2: 549.

  • 7.Ibid., pp. 549-50. Attached to the document is a list of pensioners to whom it was sent, i.e., Ivan Pozhalostin, Ivan Panfilov, ll'ia Repin, Mikhail Popov, Henryk Semiradski, Pavel Kovalevskii, Vasilii Polenov, and Vladimir Orlovskii.

  • 8.Ibid., 1: 119.

  • 9.Ibid., p. 127. 10. "Sud'by russkogo iskusstva," Novoe vremia, no. 645, Dec. 13, 1877; no. 646, Dec. 14, 1877; no. 647, Dec. 15, 1877; the final part, recommending changes in the Academy Statute, was printed in 1882; reprinted in Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi. Pis'ma, 2: 304-42. Kramskoi's articlc discontinucd publication aftcr thc first thrcc in- stallments at the request of the Minister of the Court, who charged that the article would "undermine" students' respect for their teachers as well as "society's trust for the government."

  • 11. For more of Kramskoi's thoughts on national art expressed in this article, see Document 12 2 in Section III.

  • 12.Tovarishchestvo,1: 146-47.

  • 13.!bid., pp. 160-61.

  • 14. The Church of St. Nicholas "v Tolmachakh" was Pavel Tret'iakov's parish church; it is now the house church of the Tret'iakov Gallery. 15. Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, second largest art school in the empire, formed in 1833 on the initiative of the Moscow Art Society and accredited by the Academy in 1845. Though subordinated to the Academy and part of the official system of art education, the Moscow school was known for being more independent than the St. Petersburg institution and played an important part in devel- oping a national school of painting. 16. Tovanishchestvo, 1: 194.

  • 17.Ibid., pp. 207-08. This letter was sent to each member of the Association. 18. The All-Russian Arts and Industries Exhibition marked the 25th Anniversary of Alexander II's reign and was scheduled to open in Moscow in May 1879. After the assassination of the Tsar, it was postponed until May 1882.

  • 19.Tovarishchestvo, 1: 217.

  • 20. Ibid.,p. 303

  • 21. I.e., the St. Petersburg Municipal Council's letter refusing to allow the Associ- ation to construct its own exhibition pavilion. See Document 10 in this section.

  • 22.IvanNikolaevichKramskoi,.Pi.s'ma, 2: 241-42.

  • 23. Konstantin Pobedonostsev (1827-1907), a reactionary political figure, head of the Holy Synod, the state institution that governed the Russian Orthodox Church, and tutor to the last two tsars. 24. Tovarishchestvo, 2: 598, n. 1. 25. General P. A. Gresser (1833-1892).

  • 26.Tovarishchestvo,2: 598, n. 1. 27. I. P. Dumovo, head of the Department of Police. 28. Tovari.rhcheslvo, 1: 371. 29. Nikodim Kondakov (1844-1925), archaeologist and Byzantinist; full member of the Academy from 1893; from 1905 member of its Council. 30. A. N. Savinov, "Akademiia khudozhestv i Tovarishchestvo peredvizhnykh khudozhestvennykh vystavok," Problemy razvifüa russkogo iskusstva, 2 (Leningrad, 1972), p. 48. Kondakov was reporting a conversation with the Conference Secretary of the Academy, Count I. I. Tolstoi. Tolstoi also reported the Tsar saying: "`ist is de- sirable that this split among the artists should stop,' and he began talking about the Peredvizhniki." Savinov, "Akademiia khudozhestv i Tovarishchestvo," p. 48.

  • 31.1!D.Polenov,E.D.Polenova,Khronikasem'ikhudozhnikov, E. V. Sakharova, ed. (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1964), pp. 592-93.

  • 32.V.D.Polenov,E.D.Polenova, p. 599. 33. Ibid., p. 600. 34. Ibid., pp. 601-02.

  • 35. Polenov was not appointed to the teaching staff of the reformed Academy. 36. Pavel Chistiakov (1832-1919), painter and revered, long-time teacher at the Academy.

  • 37. Repin, Pis'ma, 2: 422, n. 8. 38. Ibid. 39. Elena Polenova (1850-1898), Vasilii Polenov's sister, a noted painter, illustra- tor and designcr active in the revival of kustar art industries and a pioneer of the neo- Russian style. 40. V. D. Polenov. E. D. Polenova, p. 496.

  • 41. Repin, Pis'ma, 2: 439, n. 3. 42. I. E. Repin, "V zashchitu novoi Akademii khudozhestv," Nedelia (Oct. 1897); reprinted in vospominanüa, stat'i i pis'ma iz zagranitsy 7. E. Repina, N. V. Nordman, ed. (St. Petersburg: Skoropeeh. Evgeni Tile, 1901), pp. 212-45. Repin's essay defend- ing the new Academy, in whose reform he was actively involved and in which he came to head one of the newly ereated studios, presents a rather incoherent argument. But it is significant for its defense of art for art's sake (a belief he held at that time) and for its argument that the reformed Academy finally embodied the motto that Ca- therine 11 had placed over its entrance, "To The Free Arts." It is ironic that, within a few years, Repin abandoned his belief in art for art's sake and came to propound na- tivist ideas very similar to those of Stasov. As for the Academy, the reforms failed to revitalize it and "free" art began to flourish outside of its confines.

  • 1.Tovarishchestvo, vol. 1: 141-43.

  • 2.Ibid,p. 245.

  • 3. Konstantin Makovskii (1846-1915), a highly successful painter of sentimental genre scenes, both current-day and historical. 4. Tovarishchestvo, 1: 188. 5. Ihid., pp. 194-95. 6. Mikhail Klodt (1832-1902), landscape painter, Association member, and profes- sor at the Acadcmy from 1872. Under a pseudonym, Klodt published an article on the Association's exhibitions in the journal Molva (112 [April 25, 1879]) that was particu- larly critical of Kuindzhi's landscapes. (Tovarishchestvo, 2: 567-68, n. 1.)

  • 7.Tovarishchestvo, 1: 331. 8. Ibid.

  • 9. Ibid,p. 373. 10. Ibid.

  • 11. Ibid., p. 376. For the text of the new Statute, see Document 9 in Section II A. Vasnetsov resigned before mid-June, 1890. (See Tovarishchestvo, 2: 600.)

  • 12.V.D.Polenov,.E.D.Polenova, p. 463. For the text of the 1892 Circular spel- ling out the new exhibition rules, see Document 10, Section II A.

  • 13. Sergei Ivanov (1864-1910), a member of the Association (joined 1899) and co- founder of the Union of Russian Artists. 14. V. D. Polenov. E. D. Polenova, pp. 476-77.

  • 1.M.M.Antokol'skü.Egozhizn',tvorenüa,pis'ma.istat'i, V.V. Stasov, ed. (St. Petersburg: Izd. T-va M. O. Vol'f, 1905), p. 39. 2. ll'ia Repin's Volga Barge Haulers was shown to much acclaim at the 1872 World's Fair in Vienna. 3. Stasov, ed. M M. Antokol'skii, p. 414. Elizaveta Grigor'evna Mamontova (1847-1908), wife of Moscow industrialist Savva Mamontov (1841-1918) with whom she shared an interest in art and collecting. Together they set up an art community at Abramtsevo, including workshops to revive peasant crafts. 4. Le., Surikov's Morning of the Execution of the Streltsy (1881), GTG.

  • 5.M.M.��o�o/'�7, pp. 484, 487-88.

  • 6.NikolaiNikolaevichGe.Mirkhudozhnika.Pis'ma.Stat'i.Kritika.Vospomina-nüasovremennikov. N. Iu. Zograf, comp. (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1978), pp. 209-10. 7. "Ob iskusstve i liubiteliakh," Nikolai Nikolaevich Ge, pp. 238-43. The congress was convened to mark the transfer of the Tret'iakov Gallery to the City of Moscow.

  • 8.NikolaiNikolaevichGe, p. 169. 9. 1.e., The Synedrion Trial. "Condemned to Death!" (1892), GTG.

  • 10. "Moi predshestvenniki," in Konstantin Korovin vspominaet, I. S. Zil'bershtein and V. A. Samkov, eds. (Moscow: Izobrazitel'noe Iskusstvo, 1971), p. 112. Polenov taught at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture from 1882 to 1895. 11. Konstantin Korovin vspominaet, p. 120.

  • 12. Ibid,pp. 118, 150. 13. Mamontov opened his Private Opera Company in Moscow in 1885 with Aida as part of the first season. 14. Konstantin Korovin vspominaet, pp. 132-33.

  • 15. B. Vysheslavtsev, "Moi dni s Korovinym," Novyi zhnrnal, 40 (1955), p. 155; reprinted in V. Serov v perepiske, 2: 193. 16. I.e. chromolithographs printed on cloth to imitate oil paintings. 17. Ivan Ivanovich Kramskoi. Pis'ma, 1: 107.

  • 18. Instead of his initials Vasil'ev placed an anchor in the bottom right corner of the canvas. 19. Ivan Ivanovich Kramskoi. Pis'ma, 1: 201. 20. Ibid, p. 233.

  • 21. Ibid., pp. 268-69.

  • 22.Ibid., p. 276. This letter was in answer to Repin's letter of October 16, 1874, part of a polemic over Repin's allegiances as a Russian artist. (See Document 4 in the Repin selections in this section.) 23. Ibid., pp. 300, 301.

  • 24.Ibid, pp. 311, 312, 313. See Repin's reply below (Repin, Document 5.) 25. Kramskoi ob iskusstve, T. M. Kovalenskaia, comp. (Moscow: Izd. Akademiia khudozhestv SSSR, 1960), p. 83.

  • 26. Ibid., pp. 359-60. 27. Ivan Ivanovich Kramskoi. Pis'ma, 1: 341-42.

  • 28. "Sud'by russkogo iskusstva," in Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi. Pis'ma, vol. 2 (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1966), pp. 304, 332, 339. Kramskoi's article, critical of the Academy, discontinued publication after the first three installments on the request of the Minister of the Court. He charged that the article would "undermine" students' re- spect for their teachers as well as "society's trust for the government." The published sections appeared in Novoe vremia, Dec. 13, 14, and 15, 1877. All four were finally published by Stasov in 1888. For other excerpts from this article, see Document 7 in Section IIB. 29. Ibid, p. 460.

  • 30. Ibid., pp. 469-70. 31. Charles Verlat (1824-1890), Belgian history and animal painter, who exhibited Give lls Barabas, Not Christ! at the 1878 Exposition Universelle in Paris. 32. Hans Mackart (1840-1884), Austrian history painter and portraitist. Kramskoi is referring to his painting Arrival of Charles V in Antwerp, shown at the 1878 Exposi- tion Universelle in Paris.

  • 33. Henryk Semiradski (1843-1902), successful and internationally known Polish academic painter, graduate of thc Russian Academy, specialized in scenes from an- cient Greece and Rome. 34. Raimondo Madrazo (1841-1920), Spanish portraitist and gcnrc paintcr. 35. Gustav Richter (1823-1884), Gcrman portraitist and genre painter. 36. Heinrich von Angeli (1840-1925), Austrian portraitist and history painter. 37. Kramskoi is referring here to Franz von Lenbach's (1836-1904) portrait of the theologian Ignaz von Döllinger. 38. Jan Matejko (1834-1893), Polish history painter, who exhibited The Union of Lublin (1869) and Sigismund's Bell (1874).

  • 39.IvanNikolaevichKramskoi.Pis'ma,2: 132. Repin's painting was currently on display in Warsaw during the 1 lth Traveling Exhibition's visit there. Pavel Kovalevs- kii (1843-1903), graduate of the Imperial Academy of Arts, battle and genre painter. 40. Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi. Pis'ma, 2: 139-40.

  • 41.Ibid., pp. 188-89. Aleksei Suvorin (1834-1912), joumalist and playwright, from 1876 editor and publisher of the newspaper Novoe vremia.

  • 42. /. L Levitan. Pis'ma. Dokumenty. �ospominanüa, A. Fcdorov-Davydov, ed. (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1956), p. 27. Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (1860-1904) was Levi- tan's close friend.

  • 43.Ibid, p. 30. 44. ihid,p. 37. 45. Ibid., p. 42.

  • 46.Ibid., p. 45. Apollinarii Mikhailovich Vasnetsov (1856-1933), brother of Vik- tor Vasnetsov, specialized in landscape and historical evocations of Muscovy, became a member of the Association in 1888, but left in 1904. He took over Levitan's land- scape class at the Moscow School after the latter's death. 47. Ibid, p. 46. 48. Ibid., pp. 62-3.

  • 49.Russkievedomo.sti, Oct. 4, 1897; reprinted ibid., p. 108. Aleksei Savrasov (1830-1897), landscape painter and a founding member of the Association, was Levi- tan's teacher at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture. 50. Maksim Vorob'ev (1787-1855), Vasilii Shternberg (1818-1845), Mikhail Le- bedev (1811-1837), Silvestr Shchedrin (1791-1830), all Academy-trained artists who lived for varying lengths of time abroad, particularly in Italy. 51. L /. Levitan. Pis'ma. Dokumenty. Vospominanüa, p. 265. Viktor Gol'tsev (1850-1906) was editor of Russkaia mysl', to which Chekhov was a contributor. 52. Gol'tsev's article "V masterskoi khudozhnika," Russkie vedomosti, no. 25, Jan. 25, 1897. Describing a visit to Levitan's studio, he concludes: "And so the supporter of idea-based art leaves the studio deeply moved ... Clouds, a wave, a stormy out- burst can show us nothing, but he interprets nature for us."

  • 53. A slightly misquoted line from Mikhail Lermontov's celebrated poem Rodina ("The quivering fires of sad villages"). 54. These lines are in fact from Evgenii Baratynskii's poem On the Death of Goethe (1832). 55. I. 1. Levitan. Pis'ma. Dokumenty. Vospominanüa, p. 94. 56. Le., the first World of Art exhibition, titled the International Art Exhibition, which opened in St. Petersburg in January 1899 and ineluded works by Böcklin, Car- riere, Degas, Gallen-Kallela, Lenbach, Monet, Moreau, Puvis de Chavannes, and Whistler.

  • 57. For his opinions about the development of a Russian school of art, see his 1888 report on thc Association's 25th anniversary, Document 8 in Section IIA. 58. Andrei Somov (1830-1909), close friend of Miasoedov who became an art his- torian and Hermitage curator; father of the painter Konstantin Somov. 59. Source: G. G. Miasoedov. Pis'ma, dokumenty. Vospominanüa, V. S. Ogolo- vets, ed. (Moscow: Izobrazitel'noe iskusstvo, 1972), p. 29.

  • 60.1bid., pp. 31-2, 33, 34. 61. Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin (1826-1889) wrote for the leading radical journals of his time, Sovremennik and Otechestvennye zapiski, while his satirical books at- tacked Russia's institutions and the pervasivc ills of the day. See also excerpts from his review of the 1 st Traveling Exhibition in Document 2, Section IV.

  • 62.Sem'iai.shkola,2 [1], no. 10 (1881), p. 375; reprinted in Miasoedov,. Pi.s'ma, dokumenty. Vospominanüa, p. 84. 63. "Ocherk zhizni i deiatel'nost' Tovarishchestva peredvizhnykh khudozhestven- nykh vystavok," in Tovarishcheslvo, 1: 335.

  • 64.M.VNesterov.Vospominanüa, A. A. Rusakova, ed. (Moscow, 1985), pp. 114, 115, 116, 117. 65. Le., the 1889 Exposition Universelle in Paris. 66. Jules Bastien-Lepage (1848-1884), like Pierre Puvis de Chavannes (1824- 1898), a French painter highly admired by younger Russian painters eager to go beyond strict realism. 67. Kramskoi, A Contemplative Man (1876), GTG.

  • 68. M. V. Nesterov. Vospominanüa, pp. 129-30, 132, 134. 69. In 1884 Adrian Prakhov was appointed chairman of the Commission for the In- terior Decoration of the Cathedral of St. Vladimir in Kiev.

  • 70. Vasnetsov paintcd a circular frieze illustrating Stone-Age culture in the Mos- cow Historical Museum (1883-1885).

  • 71.IvanIvanovichShishkin, I. N. Shuvalova, ed. (Leningrad: Iskusstvo, Lenin- gradskoc otdelenie, 1978), p. 73. 72. Perov had just graduated from the Academy and refers here to its exhibition of graduating students. 73. V. G. Perov, A. A. Fedorov-Davydov, ed. (Moscow: Izobrazitel'noe iskusstvo, 1934), pp. 93-94.

  • 74.1bid., pp. 94-95. 75. M. V. Nesterov. Vospominanüa, pp. 109-10.

  • 76. Ibid, p. 122. 7 7. Ibid., p. 113.

  • 78. I! D. Polenov. E. D. Polenova, p. 393. 79. I.e., the Cathedral of St. Vladimir in Kiev. 80. V. D. Polenov. E. D. Polenova, p. 486.

  • 81. Ibid, pp. 618-20.

  • 82.Ibid., p. 443-44.

  • 83. L Repin. Pis'ma, 1: 50-51. 1. 84. Ibid., pp. 98-99.

  • 85.Ibid., pp. 122-23. 86. Ibid., pp. 142-43. This confession by Repin began a polemic with Kramskoi for his allegiance. See Document 5 in the Kramskoi section above.

  • 87.Ibid., pp. 165-66. For Kramskoi's letter critical of Repin treating this theme, see Document 7 in the Kramskoi scction above.

  • 88.Ibid., pp. 174-75. Nikolai Aleksandrov was the editor and publisher of Khu- dozhestvennye zhurnal (1881-1887). 89. Ibid., pp. 237-38. 90. Ibid., pp. 240-41.

  • 91.1hid., pp. 394-95. 92. Stasov had written critically of V. Mikheev's article about Surikov (Artist, 16 [October, 1891)). V. Mikheev (1859-1908), writer. 93. 1. Repin, Ualekoe i blizkoe, K. Chukovskii, ed. (Moscow, 1960), pp. 381, 409, 421-22.

  • 94. Repin, Pis'ma, 2: 51. 95. Repin, "Nikolai Nikolaevich Ge i nashi pretenzii k iskusstvu," in Dalekoe i blizkoe, pp. 310-11.

  • 96.ValentinSerovvperepiske,dokumentakhiinterv'iu, 1. Zil'bershtein and V. Samkov, eds. (Leningrad: Khudozhnik RSFSR, 1985), 1: 90. 97. Ibid., p. 91. 98. Ibid, 2: 101, 102.

  • 99.Korovinvospominaet ..., I. Zil'bershtein and V. Samkov, eds. (Moscow: Izo- brazitel'noe Iskusstvo, 1971), pp. 136-37.

  • 100. D. Sarabianov, Valentin Serov. The Fir.st Master of Russian Painling (Bour- nemouth, England: Parkstone/Aurora, 1996), p. 47. 101. Source: Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin. Perepi.ska. Dnevnik. Sovremenniki o khu- dozhnike, I. N. Shuvalova, ed. (Lcningrad: Iskusstvo, 1978), p. 45

  • 102.Ibid., pp. 241, 245-46, 248. 103. losef Kolar, a teacher at the Prague gymnasium and an advocate of Slav co- operation.

  • 104.IvanIvanovichShishkin.Perepiska.Dnevnik.Sovremenniki0khudozhnike,p. 103. 105.1bid., p. 209.

  • 106.VasilüIvanovichSurikov.Pis'ma.Vospominaniiaokhudozhnike, N. A. and Z. A. Radzimovskii and S. N. Gol'dshtein, eds. (Leningrad: Iskusstvo, 1977), pp. 59- 63. 107. The "Exposition nationale des beaux arts," held in the Palais des Champs- Elysees, September to November 1883.

  • 108. Paul Vayson (1842-1911), exhibited several paintings of sheep at the exhibi- tion.

  • 109. Georges-Antoine Rochegrosse (1859-1938), Andrnmache, now in the Musee de Rouens. 110. Rembrandt van Rijn, Joseph Accused by Potiphar's Wife (1655), Gemäldega- lerie, Berlin. 111. V. D. Polenov. E. D. Polenova, pp. 337-80.

  • 112.VasiliiIvanovichSurikov.Pis'ma.Yospominanüaokhudozhnike, pp. 65, 66, 67.

  • 113. Raphael's frescos of the Expulsion of Heliodorus, the Di.sputa, and the School of Athens are located in the Stanze, the papal apartment in the Vatican Palace (1508- 1514). 114. Vasilü Ivanovich Surikov. Pis'ma. Vospominaniia 0 khudozhnike, p. 114.

  • 115. Viktor Nikol'skii (1875-1934), historian, author of a popular history of Rus- sian art (Russkaia zhivopis'.� istoriko-kriticheskie ocherki [St. Peterburg : 1zd. N. F. Merttsa, 1904]). 116. hasilü Ivanovich Surikov. Pis'ma. T�ospominanüa 0 khudozhnike, p. 132. 117. 1bid, pp. 132-33. 118. In 1877 Surikov was one of thirty-eight artists commissioned to paint murals for the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow. Other artists included were Timofei Neff, Nikolai Koshclev, Ivan Kramskoi, Vasilii Vereshchagin, Pavel Pleshanov, Vla- dimir Makovskii, and Henryk Semiradski.

  • 119.ViktorMikhailovichVasnetsov., N. A. Iaroslavtseva, ed. (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1987), pp. 46-47. 120. The 1876 Salon des Champs-Elysees in Paris. 121. Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov, p. 59. 122. Vasnetsov sent four other paintings to the 1882 "All-Russian Arts and Indus- tries Exhibition" in Moscow, among them the painting Bogatyrs referred to here.

  • 123.ViktorMikhailovichVasnetsov, p. 64. 124. Ibid., pp. 65-66. In 1884 Adrian Prakhov was appointed chairman of the Commission for the Interior Decoration of the Cathedral of St. Vladimir in Kiev and Vasnetsov was a frequent visitor to his home in the decade he spent painting the inte- rior frescoes. l25.1bid., p. 70.

  • 126.Ibid, pp. 72-73. 127. Ibid, pp. 80-81.

  • 128. Ibid, pp. 82-83. 129. Sarah Bernhardt (1844-1923), French dramatic actress; Virginia Zucchi (1857-1930), Italian ballerina.

  • 130.ViktorMikhailovichVasnetsov, pp. 84-85. 131. Nesterov's painting was shown at the 17th Traveling Exhibition. 132. Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov, pp. 95-96.

  • 133. Ibid,p. 148.

  • DOCUMENTS 1. Vladimir Stasov. Review of the lst Traveling Exhibition (1871)' I (Fig. 28) The biggest art news in St. Petersburg at the present moment is the Traveling Exhibition. Whichever way one looks at it, it seems special and fantastic: the original idea; its goal; the concerted effort of the art- ists themselves, for whom no outsider could have set the tone; and the astounding collection of superb works, amongst whose number shine several stars of the first magnitude - all of this is unheard of and un- precedented, all this is a striking novelty. Who but a little while ago could have imagined that a time would come, and come so soon, when Russian artists would no longer want to confine themselves just to their own affairs ... that they would suddenly abandon their artistic lairs and plunge into the ocean of real life, to join in with its upsurges and aspirations, giving thought to oth- er people, their comrades! ... To us the most important thing seems to be the artists' resolution to unite, to depict their own sphere and the masses, with a firmly ac- knowledged goal and a firm desire, not merely to make pretty pictures and statues because people pay money for them, but also to create with these pictures and statues something significant and important for the human mind and emotions. In this mood the artists have already begun to think, not only about buyers, but also about the people; not only about rubles, but also about those whose hearts are drawn to their creations and for whom they will be a byword.... After St. Petersburg the Traveling Exhibition will soon open in Moscow, Kiev, Odessa, and other cities, everywhere, of course, excit- ing the same gratitude and sympathy. It will do this not for the sake of

  • 2. The word "functionary" (chinovnik) refers to the fact that, upon graduating from the Academy of Arts, artists rcccived ranking (chin) in the civil service and were paid accordingly.

  • 3. Ge's canvas bears the title, Peter 1 Interrogates the Tsarevich Aleksei Petrovich at Peterhof (1871), GTG. 4. Paul Delaroche (1797-1856), French history painter. The paintings Stasov men- tions are: Cromwell Lifting the Coffin-lid and Looking at the Body of Charles I (1831); Queen Elizabeth Dying on the Ground (1828), and The Execution of Lady Jane Gray (1833).

  • 5. A character in Nikolai Gogol's Dead Souls, Nozdrev is a cheat who tells tall sto- ries.

  • 6. M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin, "Pervaia russkaia peredvizhnaia khudozhestvennaia vystavka," Otecheslvennye zapiski, 199, no. 12, pt. 2 (Dec. 1871), pp. 268-76; re- printed in Sobranie sochinenü (Moscow: Khudozhestvennaia literatura, 1970), 9: 225- 33. Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin (1826-1889), leading Russian satirist of the second part of the nineteenth century. The review translated here reflects the tone of his fic- tion and journalism, writings that ridiculed officialdom. Like Stasov, Shchedrin be- longcd to the camp of reform and progress, but he expected the new realist art to per- form an educational, not a directly agitational function. 7. Three regions (raiony) located in, respectively, Kostroma, Penza, and Kazan' provinces. 8. These three towns - Cheboksary, on the Volga River, Khotmyzh, a village in Kursk province, and Poshekhon'e, on the Shekhsna River near Beloe Ozero - reprcscnt thc provincial backwoods. Poshekhon'e, in particular, was synonymous with the back of beyond. In Russian folklore its inhabitants figured in many jokes as dim- witted yokels.

  • 9. In 1688 the young Peter the Great, with his Dutch tutor Franz Timmerman, dis- covered an English sailboat (botik) in a barn at Izmailovo. Peter named the boat "the Grandfather of the Russian Navy."

  • 10.Grazhdanin, 13 (1873); printed in English translation in Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, Volume 1: 1873-1876, translated and annotated by Kenneth Lantz (Evanston, IL: Northwestern Univ. Press, 1997), pp. 205-16. Fedor Dostoevskii (1821-1881), celebrated Russian writer whose political views were conservative and close to those of the Slavophiles. His acid references in this review to the "dear critic" were directed at Stasov. His reading of Repin's Volga Barge Hat�lerc reflects the strugglc of the conscrvative and thc reformist camps for the allegiance of the talented young painter, who did not formally become a member of the Association until 1878. 11. An exhibition of the works selected for the World Exhibition in Vienna was held at the Academy of Arts, including the final version of Repin's Volga Barge Hau- lers.

  • 12. The reference is to Thomas Hood's (1799-1845) poem "Song of the Shirt" (1843), which was published in Russia in a Russian translation in the 1860s. See also Rosalind P. Blakesley's essay in this volume.

  • 13. "Kartina Repina 'Burlaki na Volge'," Sankt-Peterburgskie vednmosti, no. 76, Mar. 18, 1873; reprinted in Stasov, Sobranie sochinenü, 1: pt 2, cols. 397-411.

  • 14.OcherkiTret'eiperedvizhnoivystavki (Kiev: n. p., 1875), pp. 1-13. In search of a wider audience and an expanded market, the Association took its exhibitions to ma- jor cities outside the two capitals. It performed yeoman public service in popularizing art and enlivening cultural life in the provinces, where the viewers responded with en- thusiasm, remaining among the most loyal supporters of peredvizhnichestvo to the end.

  • 15. Alexander 11's Emancipation Manifesto of February 19, 1861 (Julian calendar) provided the legal basis for the Emancipation Reform that granted Russian peasants freedom from serf dependence.

  • 16. "Vtoraia vystavka 'Obshchestva vystavok khudozhestvennykh proizvedenii'. 12 marta 1877 g," Novosti, 68 (1877); reprinted in V. Garshin, Sobranie sochinenii (1910), pp. 401-08. Vsevolod Garshin (1855-1888) was among the best-known popul- ist writers. He did not engage in active work for the people, but his writings are marked by compassion for the downtrodden. A close friend of Repin and a supporter of the Association, he naturally was critical of the rival organization (the Society for Art Exhibitions) created by the Imperial Academy of Arts. 17. The Exhibiting Society (Society of Art Exhibits) was organized by the Acade- my in 1875. To undercut the popularity of the Association among artists, it granted considerable autonomy to painters in administrative matters. In 1885 the Society launched traveling exhibits of its own.

  • 18. Vasilii Ivanovich Semevskii (1848-1916), social historian and author of semin- al works on the history of the Russian peasantry. 19. lakobi's Prisoner.s' Halt shows a ragged convoy of prisoners (one of whom is clearly a member of the intelligentsia - hence, a political prisoner) on the way to Sibe- ria. It was shown in 1861 at the Academy exhibit and caused quite a stir.

  • 20. Andrei Frantsevich Belloli (1822-81), portraitists, studied at the Academy of St. Luke in Rome, worked in St. Petersburg from 1859, and became an Academician in portraiture in 1861. 21. Repin did not join the Association of Traveling Exhibitions until 1878, after graduating from the Academy. 22. Profan [A. V. Prakhov], "Chetvertaia peredvizhnaia vystavka," Pchela, 10 (1875), pp. 121-22. Adrian Prakhov (1848-1916), Russia's first university-trained art historian and critic. At the start of his career Prakhov lecturcd and wrote on ancient and contemporary Western art. But he soon switched to taking an interest in the Pe- redvizhniki, endorsing their art for its positive national qualities. In the mid-1880s he was appointed to oversee the restoration of medieval churches in Kiev, a govemment program that was part of Alexander III's effort to strcngthen autocracy through an of- ficially promoted nationalism centered on Orthodoxy.

  • 23. In an Orthodox home one corner of the main room was reserved for icons and known as "the red [i.e., beautiful] corner."

  • 24, Chukhontsy, a vulgar name given the Finns.

  • 25, Koz'ma Soldatenkov (1818-1901), textile magnate, in 1901 gave his collection of paintings to the Rumiantsev Museum in Moscow. 26. On Dmitrii Vasi1'evich Botkin (1822-1899), see Rosalind P. Gray, "Muscovite Patrons of European Painting: The Collections of Vasily Kokorev, Dmitry Botkin and Sergei Tretyakov," Journal of the Hi.story of Collections, 10, no. 2 (1998), pp. 189-98.

  • 27. Streltsy, mcrccnaries who revolted against Peter I's modemization of the army in 1698; I'ugachev Rebellion, a pcasant and Cossack uprising during the reign of Ca- therine the Great (1773-1775); the Time of Troubles (1584-1613), a period of inter- rcgnum aftcr thc dcath of Ivan the Terrible and the start of the Romanov dynasty, filled with wars, invasions, and false pretenders to the throne. 28. Le., the Centennial Exhibition held in Philadelphia in 1876.

  • 29. A. V. Prakhov, "Shestaia peredvizhnaia vystavka v dome Obshchestva poosh- chreniia khudozhnikov," Literaturnaia gazeta, no. 31 (1937). Adrian Prakhov's re- view of the 6th Traveling Exhibition was written for the April 1878 issue of Pchela, but it was not printed at the time, most likely because of its implicit criticism of the social order. (Pchela ceased publication later in 1878 with its 38th issue.) The manu- script of the article was discovered among Ivan Kramskoi's papers and printed to commemorate the centenary of his birth. Published in Literah�rnaia Gazeta in 1937, it was misattributed to Kramskoi, under the title "Unknown Article by the Artist I. N. Kramskoi."

  • 30. "Peredvizhnaia vystavka 1878 g.," in V. V. Stasov, Izbrannoe (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1950), 1: 88-102. 3 I . See Document 1 in Section II C for Perov's letter of resignation.

  • 32. Karl Briullov (1799-1852), acadcmic history painter and portraitist, who won renown both at home and abroad with his Last Day.s of Pompeü (1830-1833); Kons- tantin Flavitskii (1830-1866), history painter. His Princess Tarakanova (1864), show- ing her about to drown in her flooded prison cell, caused a sensation at the Academy exhibition with its implied condemnation of despotism. 33. Iaroshenko's The Prisoner (1878) shows a male prisoner standing on a chair in his cell, straining towards the sourcc of light, a small window.

  • 34. Varlaam, a monk in Pushkin's poetical drama "Boris Godunov" (1825). Mus- sorgskii's opera Boris Gadunov had its world premiere at St. Petersburg's Mariinskii Theater in January 1874. 35. At the request of Grand Duke Vladimir Aleksandrovich, president of the Acad- emy of Arts, the painting was not included in the Russian section at the 1878 Exposi- tion Universelle in Paris.

  • 36. Ruslan, a Kievan knight, the hero of Pushkin's poem Ruslan and Liudmila (1820) and Glinka's opera of the same name (1842).

  • 37. "Literaturnoe napravlenie v zhivopisi. (Progulka po shestoi peredvizhnoi vys- tavke)," Slovo, no. 1, July 1, 1878, pp. 55-69. Petr Boborykin (1836-1921), liberal joumalist and author of popular naturalistic plays and novels that depicted the socio- economic changes Russia was undergoing at the end of the nineteenth century. He lived in France for extended periods and reported on Western art for Russian publica- tions. 38. The unnamed critic is Stasov.

  • 39. Jean-Leon Geröme (1824-1904), French Academic painter and sculptor.

  • 40.Tovarishchestvo, 1: 249. Ivan Turgenev (1818-1883), leading Russian novelist and playwright of the nineteenth century. An ardent Westernizer, who spent much of his adult life abroad, Turgenev was critical of nativist trends in his homeland, which, in his view, would deprive Russia of the civilizing influence of the West. The letter excerpted here deals with Kramskoi's unsuccessful plans to mount an exhibition of the Peredvizhniki in Paris. He was encouraged in this endeavor by the positive re- sponse in Paris to Repin's Volga Barge Haulers at the 1878 Exposition Universelle and to the 1880 personal exhibition of Vasilii Vereshchagin. Turgenev and Bogoli- ubov acted as intermediaries with a private Parisian agent interested in mounting the exhibit.

  • 41. On Repin's Volga Barge Haulers, which was shown to great acclaim at the 1873 World's Fair in Vienna, see Document 3 in this section. Vasilii Vershchagin (1842-1904), internationally famous painter of war scenes. He was very close to the Peredvizhniki in his views on the educational role of art, but never joined the Associa- tion, preferring to organize his own exhibits at home and abroad.

  • 42.M.A.Vrubel':Perepiska,Vospominanüaokhudozhnike, E. P. Gomberg- Verzhbinskaia and Iu. N. Podkopaeva, eds, 2nd ed. (Leningrad: Iskusstvo, 1976), pp. 37-39. Mikhail Vrubel (1856-1910), leading Symbolist paintcr of thefin-de-siixle. Recognized as the most original Russian talent of that period, Vrubel started formal art training late in life (1880) after graduating from St. Petersburg University. He en- tered the Academy of Fine Arts in 1881 and was befriended and encouraged by Repin. Vrubel's negative response to Repin's "joumalism," expressed in this passage, marked the parting of their artistic ways.

  • 43. M. V. Nesterov, Vospominanüa. A. A. Rusakova, ed. (Moscow: Sovetskii khudozhnik, 1985), pp. 126-27. Mikhail Nesterov (1862-1942), the first "realist" to paint spiritual or mystical themes. A student of Vasilii Perov, he started with urban genre scenes. His Vision of the Youth Bartholomew, shown at the 18th Exhibition in 1890, discussed here, represented a break with the secular tradition of the Association and caused lively disagreements. 44. Dmitrii Mendeleev (1843-1916), internationally known chemist and inventor of the periodic table; Dmitrii Grigorovich (1822-1899), writer and art critic, Secretary of the Imperial Society for the Encouragement of the Arts from 1864-1884.

  • 45. Nikolai Mikhailovskii, "Pis'ma o raznykh raznostiakh," Russkie vedomosti, no. 57, Feb. 28, 1890; reprinted in N. K. Mikhailovskii, Polnoe sobranie sochinenü (St. Petersburg: Stasiulevich, 1909), 6: 743-61. Nikolai Mikhailovskii (1842-1904), lead- ing Populist theoretician. In this review he bemoans the replacement of the original Peredvizhnik ethos of public service with self-absorbed individualism.

  • 46. Molchalin, a character in Aleksandr Griboedov's comedy, Gore ot uma (1825). 47. Vladimir Makovskii (1846-1920), a popular painter of social genre, considered superior to his brother, Konstantin.

  • 48. This was Valentin Serov's portrait of his late father, the composer Aleksandr Serov (1820-1871). Serov chose this portrait, painted in a traditional manner, as being more likely to be accepted for the Traveling Exhibition than his plein-air portraits. 49. Gleb Uspenskii (1843-1902), leading realist writer of the second half of the ni- neteenth century. With Populist sympathies, he first wrote sketches of peasant life that were almost ethnographic in detail. Later he became disillusioned with Populism. 50. Pelageia Strepetova (1850-1903), actress populär with the intelligentsia, spe- cializing in Ostrovskii plays.

  • 51. Sergei Glagol' (pseudonym of Sergei Goloushev) (1855-1920), graphic artist and critic for Artist during thc 1890s, championed fresh talent among the young gen- eration of realists. 52. "Vesennye khudozhestvennye vystavki v Moskve, 1890. 1) Peredvizhnaia vys- tavka," Artist, 7 (April 1890), pp. 103, 104, 105.

  • 53. A. Kiselev, "Akademicheskaia vystavka 1890 g.," Artist, 7 (April, 1890), pp. 99, 100, 103. Aleksandr Kiselev (1838-1911), landscape painter and member of the Association since 1876. In 1897 he became head of the landscape studio in the re- formed Academy of Arts. During the 1890s he edited the art section of Artist, a new and influential journal. As a critic he was considered to be a proponent of "sincere tendentiousness," that is, one who valued thc aesthetic aspects of art uppermost.

  • 54. George Kennan (1845-1924), American joumalist. Author of Siberia and the Exile System (1891), based on extensive travels in Russia and serialized before publi- cation. The book exposed the inhumane conditions of the prison system as well as the repressive nature of the Tsarist govemment and made him into an internationally known figure. 55. Nikolai Nikolaevich Ge. Pis'ma; Stat'i; Kritika; Vospominanüa sovremenni- kov, N. lu. Zograf, ed. (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1978), pp. 149-50; published in transla- tion in Valkenier, ed., The Wanderer.5�. Masters of Nineteenth-Century Russian Paint- ing, p. 194. Count Lev Tolstoi (1828-1910). The preeminent Russian novelist of the nineteenth ccntury, he virtually gave up fiction in the early 1880s to propound new ethical and religious ideas in personal and private life, literature and art included. Ni- kolai Ge became a disciple by the mid-1880s and tried to incorporate Tolstoi's ethical view of Christianity in his painting, What is Truth? Ge's effort to break with Titian's and Da Vinci's tradition of Christian art was removed from the 18th Traveling Exhibi- tion by order of the government for being "subversive" and "offensive to religion," and banned from being shown in Russia. Hence, Tolstoi wrote to George Kennan in the United States, asking for his help in exhibiting the canvas abroad.

  • 56. A. Kiselev, "Etiudy po voprosam iskusstva. Pis'mo 4-e. Nasha zhizn' i tipy v kartinakh V. E. Makovskogo," Artists, 32 (1893), pp. 24-35. 57. Among British painters Kiselev listed William Hogarth (1797-1864), David Wilkie (1785-1841), Thomas Webster (1800-1886), and William Mulrcady (1786- 1863). 58. Ludwig Knaus (1829-1910), German genre painter and one of the leaders of thc younger Düsseldorf school. 59. Benjamin Vautier (1829-1898), Swiss genre painter, worked in Düsseldorf from 1857.

  • 60. Pavel Fedotov (1815-1853), painter of satirical genre scenes on contemporary urban thcmes. 61. Vladimir Makovskii (1846-1920) was one of the original founders of the Asso- ciation and the most popular painter of social genrc. By the 1890s, among the more disccming public, he became a symbol of the decline of Peredvizhnik art into banal, sentimental naturalism. 62. Hans Christian Andersen's fairytale, The Nightingale (1844).

  • 63. The Moscow Society of Artists formed by young graduates of the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, held thcir first exhibit in 1893. It held aloof from the two camps of Russian art, but at the start most of its members felt clos- er to the Association. In the history of Russian art the Moscow Society is regarded as the first mild, i.e., not secessionist, protest against the rigid moral or civic ideals of thc Peredvizhniki. 64. N. Dosekin, "Vystavka moskovskikh khudozhnikov," Artist, 37 (April 1894), pp. 141-46. Nikolai Dosekin (1863-1935), landscape painter, member of the Associa- tion, and art critic for Artist (1894-1895), where, like Sergei Glagol', he sympathized with fresh new tendencies and with young artists.

  • 65. Vasilii Meshkov (1867-1945), studied painting under Vasilii Polenov at the Moscow School, one of the organizers of the Moscow Society of Artists. 66. Konstantin Korovin (1861-1939), well-known and popular painter who was very appreciative of the French Impressionists. He is better known as a scenery de- signer, having worked for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes and other companies. 67. Emiliia Shanks (1857-1936), first woman painter electcd to the Association of Traveling Exhibits in 1894, the same year she joined the Moscow Society of Artists. 68. On the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, see Section IIB, n. 15.

  • 69.Novostiibirzhevaiagazeta, March 5 and 9, 1897; reprinted in Sergei Diagilev i russkoe iskusstvo. Stat'i, otkrytye pis'ma, interv'iu. Perepiska. Sovremenniki o Di- agileve, 1. Zil'bershtein and V. Samkov, eds. (Moscow: Izobrazitel'noe Iskusstvo, 1982), 1: 67-71. Sergei Diaghilev (1872-1929), legendary cultural impresario and en- trepreneur. Before moving to Paris in 1906 with his innovative musical productions Diaghilev played an important role in shaking up the artistic scene in his homeland. He challenged the primacy of pedestrian, story-telling realism by holding exhibitions of innovative young Russian and Western artists, publishing a cosmopolitan-oriented luxury art journal (Mir iskusstva, 1898-1904), and advocating "art for art's sake." In this article, while still respectful of tradition, Diaghilev posits new tasks for the Pe- redvizhniki.

  • 70. Pierre Puvis de Chavannes executed a number of murals emulating the effect of fresco for the Pantheon, the Sorbonne, and other public buildings in France. 71. Diaghilev evidently means the Italian painters of the Quattrocento, whose reli- gious paintings inspired the young English artists and poets of the Pre-Raphaelite Bro- therhood, founded in 1848 by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais, and others.

  • 72. Pietro di I'uccio d'Orvieto (late fourteenth Century), whose murals on thc north wall of the Campo Santo of Pisa are believed to be thc carliest examples of fresco painting. 73. 1. F. Vasil'evskii. "Peterburgskie nabroski. Dve vystavki," Russkie vedomosti, no. 66, Mar. 8, 1898, p. 3. Ippolit Vasil'evskii (pseudonym Bukva; 1850-1920), a publicist who from 1882 on regularly contributed art reviews. Reporting on both the Acadcmic and travcling exhibitions, he was partial to realist art.

  • 74. A. N. Benois, "Pis'ma so vsemirnoi vystavki. lll," Mir iskusstva, 19-20 (1900), p. 156. Aleksandr Benois (1870-1960), painter, theater design, art critic and historian. One of the founders of the World of Art circle in St. Petersburg, which was responsi- ble for diversifying the cultural climate in Russia at the very end of the nineteenth century. During his long collaboration with Sergei Diaghilev, Benois supplemented the impresario's brilliant managerial talents with his superior knowledge of art history and of Western trends. In his report on the Russian art display at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris, Benois clearly states the claim of the young generation promoted by the World of Art circle, to full recognition of its proper place in Russian art and for its efforts to restore to Russian art its good name in Europe, which had suffered inter- national derision during the long ascendancy of the Peredvizhniki.

  • 75. All of the artists Benois lists were represented in the Mir iskusstva journal and at the group's exhibitions. 76. On Antokol'skii see Section III. 77. Prince Paolo Trubetskoi (1866-1938), successful Russian sculptor, whose sta- tuette of Lev Tolstoi on horseback won the Grand Prix at the 1900 Exposition Univer- selle. 78. Valentin Serov won the highest award at the 1900 Paris Exposition Univer- selle, but for another painting, his portrait of Grand Duke Pavel Aleksandrovich. Ma- liavin won a gold medal for Laughter and Korovin was awarded the Legion of Honor for designing Russia's Central Asia section. 79. The painting singled out by Benois here is the 1899 portrait of Sofiia Botkina, wife of the Moscow businessman and art collector Petr Botkin.

  • 80. Nikolai Murashko, Vospominaniia starogo uchitelia (Kiev, 1903), p. 39. Niko- lai Murashko (1844-1908). Genre painter and close associate of the Peredvizhniki. In 1875 he set up Kiev's first art school, where the principles of peredvizhnichestvo were honored and strictly observed. 81. M. Voloshin "0 khudozhestvennoi tsennosti postradavshei kartiny Repina," reprinted in Maksimilian Voloshin, Sobranie sochinenü (Moscow: Ellis Lak, 2005), 3: 313-35. Maksimilian Voloshin (1877-1932), Symbolist poet who studied painting in France and translated French poetry. The speech excerpted here was given at a public dispute organized on February 12, 1913 by the Jack of Diamonds group to counter D'ia Repin's accusations that it was the modernist artists who had instigated the reccnt slashing of his painting of Ivan the Terrible cradling the body of his son after dealing him a deadly blow. The tone of the dispute over the slashing of Repin's canvas exem- plifies the extreme polarization of public opinion on matters of art that prevailed in Russia on the eve of World War I. For the conservatives, Repin's oeuvre epitomized the great achievements of thc realist school; for the rebellious youth and liberals - a moribund tradition. The text was first delivered as a public lecture in Moscow at a de- bate held by the Jack of Diamonds on February 12, 1913.

  • 82. Nikolai Rerikh (Roerich) (1874-1947), painter of pre-historic and medieval Russian themes, associated carly in his career with thc World of Art and Diaghilcv's Ballets Russes, for which he designed the ballet Le Sacre du Printemp.s in 1913.

  • 83. A. Balashov, a deranged icon painter who slashed the painting in 1913. 84. Kuokkala, location of Repin's estate, "Penaty," north of St. Petersburg. 85. David Burliuk (1882-1967), avant-garde painter and leader of the radical left artist forces in Moscow after the 1905 Revolution.

  • 86. S. Gorodetskii, "Vystavka peredvizhnikov," Izvestüa, 58, no. 1497, March 12, 1922, p. 4; reprinted in V. N. Perel'man, ed., Bor'ba za realizm v izobrazitel'nom iskusstve 20-kh godov (Moscow: Izobrazitel'noe iskusstvo, 1961), pp. 103-04. This review in the Soviet government's official organ indicates the emergence of a new Marxist and class-bascd criticism. Poet Sergei Gorodetskii (1884-1967) was one of the founders (with Nikolai Gumilev) of the Guild of Poets in 1910. In the early 1920s Gorodetskii wrote for the literary sections of Izvestüa and Teatr revoliutsü and formed a Moscow Guild of Pocts with Anatolii Lunacharskii, the People's Commissar of En- lightenment. 87. Dmitrii A. Shcherbinovskii (1867-1926), a graduate of the Academy, taught at the Stroganov School in Moscow. 88. Nikolai Kasatkin (1859-1930), member of the Association, in 1922 joined the Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia (AKrRR); first Soviet artist to receive the title People's Artist in 1923.

  • 89. Pavel Radimov (1887-1967), became a member of the Association in 1914 and its last president in 1918.

  • 90. N. M. Shchekotov, "0 starykh i novykh 'Peredvizhnikakh'," Krasnaia niva, 17 (1923), pp. 13-14. Nikolai Shchekotov (1884-1945), art historian, museum adminis- trator, and art critic. During the 1920s he tried to moderate the rehabilitation of the Pe- redvizhniki by stressing their best, early tradition. 91. Anatolii Lunacharskii (1875-1933), the first Soviet People's Commissar for Enlightenment (Narkompros) responsible for culture and education.

  • 92. Pcoplc's Will, the terrorist organization responsible for the assassination of Al- exander 11 in 1881.

  • 1. V. V. Stasov, "Dvadtsat'-piat' let russkogo iskusstva. Nasha zhivopis'," Evro- peiskü vestnik (Nov.-Dec., 1882) (Feb., June, Oct., 1883); reprinted in Stasov, Iz- brannoe, pp. 391-427. Stasov's essay, composed of two parts, delineated the devel- opment of national character in Russian music and art. This is the first extensive translation into English of the section on art. For a translation of the section on music see Vladimir Stasov, Selected Essays in Music, trans. by Florence Jonas (London: Barrie & Rockliff/Cresset Press, 1968).

  • 2. Karl Briullov (1799-1852) won international recognition for his Last Day of Pompeü (1830-33); taught at the Academy 1836-1848.

  • 3. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865), French political philosopher of the social- ist tradition; Realist painter Gustave Courbet (1819-1877) was a follower of his idea- listic socialism.

  • 4. Crimean War (1853-1856). Russia suffered an ignominious defeat in this con- flict with England and France over influence in the Balkans and Eastern Mediterra- nean, and the territories of the Ottoman Empire.

  • 5. Stasov is wrong here; Kramskoi did accept the title of Acadcmician.

  • 6. Chemyshevskii argued in his dissertation, Ob estetiche.rkikh otnosheniiakh iskusstva k deistvitel'nosti (1855) for the superiority of reality over art.

  • 7. A. P. Novitskii, Peredvizhniki i vlüanie ikh na russkoe iskusstvo (Moscow: Izd. Grossmana i Knebel', 1897), pp. 1-5, 32-37, 523, 56-59, 68, 80-82, 119-20, 125-27. Aleksei Novitskii (1862-1934), art historian and editor of Russkü khudozhestvennyi arkhiv (1892-1894). The Association commissioned him to write a monograph mark- ing the 25th anniversary of its activity; it was the first book devoted to the Peredvizh- niki. For Novitskii, as for most of the public by the 1890s, the Peredvizhniki were significant for their positive rendition of things Russian. Hence his great admiration for both Perov and Vladimir Makovskii, and a certain coolness toward Repin. His ap- preciation of Vasnetsov as a religious painter is also significant for the tenor of the time.

  • 8. Vasilii Perov, The Arrival of the Policeman at the Investigation (1857), GTG. 9. M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin, Gubernskie ocherki. Iz zapisok otstavnago nadvor- nago sovetnika Shchedrina, 3 vols. (Moscow, 1857).

  • 10. Viktor Vasnetsov, After the Battle Between Igor Sviatoslavich and the Polovt- sian.s (1880), GTG.

  • 11. A. V. Prakhov, "Imperator Aleksandr III, kak deiatcl' russkogo khudozhest- vennogo prosveshcheniia," Khudozhestvennye sokrovishcha Ilossü, 3 (1903), pp. 125- 81. At this point in his long career, Prakhov became an apologist for a narrowly con- ceived national art closely related to Alexander III's program promoting conservative nationalism.

  • 12. The Imperial Academy of Arts was officially founded by Empress Elizabeth in 1757. 13. Actually, fourteen students seceded from the Academy, but one of them was a sculptor.

  • 14. Ivan Aivazovskii (1817-1900), intemationally celebratcd marine painter.

  • 15. Cathedral of St. Vladimir, Kiev (1862-1896), built to celebrate the 900th anni- versary of Kievan Rus's conversion to Christianity. The interior was designed by Adrian Prakhov and painted by a team of artists headed by Viktor Vasnetsov. 16. Louis Gallait (1810-1887), Belgian history painter; Karl Theodor von Piloty (1835-1886), leading German history painter and professor at the Munich Akademie der Bildenden Künste; Jan Matejko (1838-1893), Polish painter of events in Polish history.

  • 17. Actually, Alexander III's first visit was to the l3th Traveling Exhibition in 1885. 18. After a period of censorship reforms during thc reign of Tsar Alexander I1, censorship laws were re-imposed in 1866.

  • 19. Ge sympathized with the liberals and the Populists in the 1860s and 1870s. By the late 1880s he became a Tolstoian and started painting on religious topics. 20. On the rcmoval of Ge's painting from the 1890 Traveling Exhibition, see Doc- uments 15 and 16, Section 118.

  • 21. Nikolai Miklukho-Maklai (1846-1888), Russian anthropologist and explorer, acknowledged as the father of Russian ethnography for his work in Papua New Gui- nea. A year before his death he returned to St. Petersburg to present his work to thc Russian Geographical Society. 22. The plan for a national museum of Russian art was only realized in 1895 when Nicholas 11 created the Alexander III Museum (subsequently the State Russian Mu- seum) in memory of his father, in St. Petersburg.

  • 23. A. Benua, Russkaia shkola zhivopisi (St. Petersburg: Golike and Vil'borg, 1904), pp. 11- 12, 54, 5 7. In addition to being a painter and stage designer, Benois was also a distinguished art historian and critic.

  • 24. A. Fedorov-Davydov, Russkoe iskusstvo promyshlennogo kapitalizma (Mos- cow: GAKhN, 1929), pp. 189-90, 194, 197, 200, 205ff. After the Bolshevik Revolu- tion, art history and art criticism passed into the hands of the sociological, Marxist school. Guided by economic and class determinism, it treated the Peredvizhniki and their art as representing narrow interests of the ascendant bourgeoisie during the pe- riod of industrial capitalism. Marxist historians investigated and emphasized econom- ic motivation on the part of both patrons and painters. The driving force was market demands and opportunities; no credence was paid to moral, patriotic, or liberal moti- vation. Aleksei Fedorov-Davydov (1900-1969), together with Vladimir Friche (1870- 1929) and Boris Arvatov (1896-1940), were the leading Marxist art historians during the 1920s. Their school was snuffed out soon after the advent of Stalinism in the mid 1930s.

  • 25.Raznochintsy, term denoting persons of non-noble origin who due to their edu- cation were excluded from the taxable status and could apply for the status of personal distinguished citizenship; in the nineteenth century a significant numbcr of the Russian intelligentsia were raznochintsy. 26. Stasov, "Dvadtsatiletie peredvizhnikov." St. Petersburg, 1896, p. 13. (Novits- kii's footnote.) 27. Yospominanüa, stat'i i pis'ma iz-za granitsei L E. Repina. N. D. Severova, ed. (St. Petersburg: Skoropech. E. Tile, 1901).

  • 28. All important art collectors from the merchant class of Moscow.

  • 29. Igor' Grabar' (1871-1960), painter, art historian, leading figure in the Soviet art establishment. After the Bolshevik revolution Grabar', unlike most of his friends and colleagues around the World of Art group, did not emigrate. He had a successful career in the Soviet Union as an art administrator and historian, notably as editor of the monumental thirteen-volume Istorüa russkogo iskusstva (Moscow, 1953-64). 30. I. Grabar', "Tovarishchestvo peredvizhnykh vystavok. Peredvizhnye vystavki i shirokic krugy radikal'noi intelligentsii. I. N. Kramskoi. V. V. Stasov. P. M. Tret'iakov," in 1. E. Repin (Moscow: Izogiz, 1937), 1: 225-40. 31. The Third Section of the Ministry of the Interior was the secret police.

  • 32.vospominanüa,stat'ii pis'maizzagranitsyLE.Repina, p. 69. (Grabar"s footnotc.)

  • 33. Igor' Grabar', ed., A/oWM russkogo i.skusstva (Moscow: AN SSSR. Institut is- torii iskusstv, 1967) 34. V. 1. Lenin, Polnoe sobranie sochinenü, vol. 25, p. 93 (Grabar"s notc.) 35. Vissarion Belinskii (1811-1848), influential literary critic and Westernizer.

  • 36. Alexander Herzen (Gertsen) (1812-1870), radical thinker, writer, and publicist who spent most of his adult life in exile abroad; editor of the journal Kolokol, which was smuggled into Russia and read by the intelligentsia.

  • 37. Nikolai Nevrev (1830-1904), history and genre painter, joined the Association in 1881. 38. Vasilii Pukirev (1832-1890), genre painter, author of the denunciatory painting An Unequal Marriage (1863).

  • 39. A. M. Gerasimov, "Velikoe nasledstvo," Iskusstvo, 4 (1947); reprinted in Za sotsialisticheskü realizm. Sbornik .statei i dokladov (Moscow: Izd. Akademii khudoz- hestv SSSR, 1952), pp. 7-20. Aleksandr Gerasimov (1881-1963), realist painter who during the Stalinist era became the regime's court painter and an influential figure in the Soviet art establishment. As head of the Moscow Union of Artists and editor of its official organ, Iskusstvo, he played a leading role in defining and enforcing the cult of the Peredvizhniki to provide a nativist source for Socialist Realism, instituted in 1934 as the official style for Soviet arts. The article extracted here was a programmatic statement indicating the arrival of zhdanovshchina, i.e., the renewal of the extreme politicization of Soviet cultural life after World War II.

  • 40. Viktor Nikol'skii, Istoriia russkogo iskusstva (Berlin: RSFSR, Gosudarstven- noe Izdatel'stvo, 1923), an objective, popular book published during the New Eco- nomic Policy.

  • 41. 1. Repin, "Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi. Pamiati uchitelia," in Dalekoe blizkoe, 5th ed. (Moscow: Izd. Akadcmii khudozhcstv SSSR, 1960), pp. 187-90. Repin wrote this piece a year after Kramskoi's death.

  • 42. On Boborykin, see n. 37 in Section IV.

  • 43. Aleksander lvanov (1806-1858) shared with his contemporaries Gogol', Be- linskii, and Herzen a messianic view of art and a belief in social reform. His major work, The Appearance of Christ to the People (1837-1857), GTG, was rejected by the Academy when Ivanov returned from Italy in 1857. 44. Dmitrii Grigorovich (1822-1900), writer and art critic, promoted the Russian national school and an appreciation of arts and crafts; appointed Secretary of the So- ciety for the Encouragement of the Arts in 1864, published articles on contemporary Western art and foreign exhibitions; commissar of the Russian Department at the "Exposition Universelle" in Paris in 1867. 45. Le., Mily Balakirev, Cesar Cui, Modest Mussorgskii, Nikolai Rimskii- Korsakov, and Aleksandr Borodin.

  • 46. Sozont Potugin, the ruined nobleman in Ivan Turgenev's novel Smoke (1867), who expresses the author's pro-Western views. 47. Count Sergei Uvarov, Minister of Public Education under Nicholas I (1833- 1849) and author of the doctrine of "Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality." 48. Apollon Grigor'ev (1822-1864), poet, translator, editor ofMoskvitianin (1850- 1856).

  • 49. Lev Tolstoi's Chto takoe iskusstvo? [What is Art?] (1897), defined art in terms of its ability to communicate concepts of morality, rather than provide pleasure or create beauty. 50. A. Benua, "I. E. Repin," in Istorüa ru.sskoi zhivopisi v XIX veke (St. Peters- burg: Znanie, 1902), p. 276; reprinted edition, V. M. Volodarskii, ed. (Moscow: Res- publika. 1995). Here, in a history text, Benois includes a description of his personal reactions in the early 1890s.

  • 51. A. Gerasimov, Zhizn' khudozhnika (Moscow: Izd. Akademii khudozhestv SSSR, 1963), pp. 68-69, 81-83.

  • 52. Velimir Khlebnikov (1885-1922), Futurist poet and originator, with Aleksandr Kruchenykh, of transrationalism (zaum); Konstantin Bal'mont (1867-1943), Symbol- ist poet of the Russian Silver Age; Vadim Shershenevich (1893-1942), poet and crea- tor of the Egofuturist group and of Imagism.

  • 53. L. O. Pastemak, Zapisi raznykh let (Moscow: Sovetskii khudozhnik, 1975), pp. 53-55.

  • 54. I.e., those students who studied with Polenov at the Moscow School of Paint- ing, Sculpture, and Architecture. They included Arkhipov, Levitan, Korovin, and Go- lovin.

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