The paper makes an empirical study on factor contribution and its stage variation characteristics during 1952–2005 and 1978–2005 in China. GMM and OLS tests show that the robustness and significance level of the institution, the physical capital and human capital’s contributions are much higher than other factors, and 70% of economic growth is boosted by the capital and the labor input. Factor contribution decomposition and TFP growth indicate trade has the most remarkable influence on economic growth. The state space model finds that physical capital, human capital, technological progress, finance, trade and institution have different effects on economic growth in different periods. Namely, factor contribution does have the characteristics of stage variation.