This article reviews literatures on mathematics education in China in the last decade. It focuses on papers that were published after 2000, and Chinese Social Science Citation Index (CSSCI). Some influential journals in the field of mathematics education, such as the Journal of Mathematics Education and the Mathematics Instruction were also reviewed. The author shares in this article with international scholars the most recent research in the field of Chinese mathematics education. Mathematics education in China mainly focuses on the essence of mathematics classroom instruction, student learning of mathematics, mathematics teacher education, and its curriculum reforms.