Global Internet governance is unique in that it officially adopted a multi-stakeholder decision making procedure instead of a state-driven international cooperation modality. We focus on the role of the Internet epistemic community in Asia, which can explain the emergence of the current norms of Internet coordination and the Internet governance structure. By sharing the most advanced knowledge from global discussions and by organizing regional cooperation platforms starting from the early 1980s, Asian Internet technical professionals created Internet coordination norms based on open contribution and led the stewardship from the early stage of Internet development in the region. Based on a review of historical documents on the early development of the Internet in Asia, we show that the Internet epistemic community in Asia has played a critical role in designing and managing the current formation of regional Internet governance regimes, as well as their working norms starting from the early stage of Internet development in the region.
Adler, Emanuel, and Peter M. Haas. “Conclusion: Epistemic Communities, World Order, and the Creation of a Reflective Research Program.” International Organization 46 (1) (1992), 367–390.
APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation). Seoul Declaration for the Asia Pacific Information Infrastructure (APEC, 30 May 1995, Seoul). https://www.apec.org/Meeting-Papers/Sectoral-Ministerial-Meetings/Telecommunications-and-Information/1995_tel/1995_tel_seoul.
APNIC. APNIC Activity Report (APNIC, 26 February 2016).
APRICOT (Asia Pacific Regional Internet Conference on Operational Technologies). “Request for Proposals to Host APRICOT 2014” (APRICOT, June 2011).
APTLD (Asia Pacific Top Level Domain Association). APTLD First Two Years (APTLD, 2000). http://old.aptld.org/orgdocs/others/APTLD_First_Two_Years.doc.
APTLD. Asia Pacific Top Level Domain Association 2014 Annual Report (APTLD, 2015).
Barnett, Michael, and Martha Finnemore. Rules for the World: International Organizations in Global Politics (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004).
Bradshaw, Samantha, Laura DeNardis, Fen Osler Hampson, Eric Jardine, and Mark Raymond. “The Emergence of Contention in Global Internet Governance.” Global Commission on Internet Governance paper No. 17 (2015). https://www.cigionline.org/publications/emergence-contention-global-internet-governance.
Bygrave, Lee A., and Jon Bing. Internet Governance: Infrastructure and Institutions. (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2009).
Chon, Kilnam. “SDN—Preliminary” (Gumi, South Korea: Korea Institute of Electronic Technology, 1981).
Chon, Kilnam. “National and Regional Computer Networks for Academic and Research Committee in the Pacific Region.” Paper presented at the Pacific Computer Communications Symposium, Seoul, October 1985.
Chon, Kilnam, ed. An Asia Internet History—First Decade (1980–1990) (Seoul: Seoul National University Press, 2013).
Chon, Kilnam, ed. An Asia Internet History—Second Decade (1991–2000) (Seoul: Seoul National University Press, 2015).
Chon, Kilnam, and Kwang-Hae Kim, eds. Proceedings of Pacific Computer Communications Symposium (Seoul: 1985).
Chon, Kilnam, Hyun Je Park, Jin Ho Hur, and Kyungran Kang. “A History of Computer Networking and the Internet in Korea [History of Communications].” IEEE Communications Magazine 51 (2) (2013), 10–15.
Clark, David. “A Cloudy Crystal Ball: Visions of the Future.” Presentation given at the 24th Internet Engineering Task Force, Cambridge, 13–17 July 1992. https://groups.csail.mit.edu/ana/People/DDC/future_ietf_92.pdf.
Cogburn, Derrick L. “Elite Decision-Making and Epistemic Communities: Implications for Global Information Policy.” In The Emergent Global Information Policy Regime, ed. Sandra Braman (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), 154–178.
Cowhey, Peter F. “The International Telecommunications Regime: The Political Roots of Regimes for High Technology.” International Organization 44 (2) (1990), 169–199.
Cross, Mai’a K. Davis. “Rethinking Epistemic Communities Twenty Years Later.” Review of International Studies 39 (1) (2013), 137–160.
DeNardis, Laura, and Andrea M. Hackl. “Internet Governance by Social Media Platforms.” Telecommunications Policy 39 (9) (2015), 761–770.
Drake, William J. “The Internet Religious War.” Telecommunications Policy 17 (9) (1993), 643–649.
Drake, William J., Vnton Cerf, and Wolfgang Kleinwächter. “Internet Fragmentation: An Overview.” Future of the Internet Initiative White Paper, World Economic Forum. 2016.
Drezner, Daniel W. “The Global Governance of the Internet: Bringing the State Back In.” Political Science Quarterly 119 (3) (2004), 477–498.
Ebert, Hannes, and Tim Maurer. “Contested Cyberspace and Rising Powers.” Third World Quarterly 34 (6) (2013), 1054–1074.
Elkins, Zachary, and Beth Simmons. “On Waves, Clusters, and Diffusion: A Conceptual Framework.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 598 (1) (2005), 33–51.
Epstein, Dmitry. “The Making of Institutions of Information Governance: The Case of the Internet Governance Forum.” Journal of Information Technology 28 (2) (2013), 137–149.
Eriksson, Johan, Giampiero Giacomello, Hamoud Salhi, Myriam Dunn Cavelty, J.P. Singh, and M.I. Franklin. “Who Controls the Internet? Beyond the Obstinacy or Obsolescence of the State.” International Studies Review 11 (1) (2009), 205–230.
European Commission. 10 Years of ASEM: Global Challenges—Joint Responses. The Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) 6, Helsinki, September 2006. http://www.aseminfoboard.org/sites/default/files/documents/asem6_brochure.pdf.
Fältström, Patrik. “Market-Driven Challenges to Open Internet Standards.” Global Commission on Internet Governance Paper Series No. 33 (2016).
Finnemore, Martha. “International Organizations as Teachers of Norms: The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization and Science Policy.” International Organization 47 (4) (1993), 565–597.
Finnemore, Martha, and Kathryn Sikkink. “International Norm Dynamics and Political Change.” International Organization 52 (4) (1998), 887–917.
Franda, Marcus F. Governing the Internet: The Emergence of an International Regime (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2001).
Gilardi, Fabrizio. “Transnational Diffusion: Norms, Ideas, and Policies.” Handbook of International Relations 2 (2012), 453–477.
Goldsmith, Jack, and Tim Wu. Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006).
Grewlich, Klaus W. “A Charter for the Internet.” Telecommunications Policy 22 (4–5) (1998), 273–279.
Haas, Peter M. “Introduction: Epistemic Communities and International Policy Coordination.” International Organization 46 (1) (1992), 1–35.
Hill, Jonah Force. “Internet Fragmentation: Highlighting the Major Technical, Governance and Diplomatic Challenges for U.S. Policy Makers” (Cambridge, MA: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, May 2012).
Hine, Christine. “The Formation of Conventions for Internet Activities.” Governance, Regulations and Powers on the Internet, eds. Eric Brousseau, Meryem Marzouki, and Cécile Méadel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 257–274.
IANW (International Academic NetWorkshop). IANW ’86 Proceedings (1986). https://sites.google.com/site/internethistoryasia/lib/ianw-proceedings/ianw-86.
Ikenberry, G. John. “A World Economy Restored: Expert Consensus and the Anglo-American Postwar Settlement.” International Organization 46 (1) (1992), 289–321.
ITU (International Telecommunications Union). Final Acts of PP-2014 (ITU, 2014).
Johnston, Alastair Iain. “Treating International Institutions as Social Environments.” International Studies Quarterly 45 (4) (2001), 487–515.
Kahler, Miles, ed. Networked Politics: Agency, Power, and Governance (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2015).
Keck, Margaret E., and Kathryn Sikkink. “Transnational Advocacy Networks in International and Regional Politics.” International Social Science Journal 51 (159) (1999), 89–101.
Keohane, Robert O. “The Demand for International Regimes.” International Organization 36 (2) (1982), 325–355.
Klein, Hans. “The Feasibility of Global Democracy: Understanding ICANN’s At-Large Election.” info 3 (4) (2001), 333–345.
Kleinwächter, Wolfgang. “The Silent Subversive: ICANN and the New Global Governance.” info 3 (4) (2001), 259–278.
Krasner, Stephen D., ed. International Regimes (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983).
Kurbalija, Jovan. An Introduction to Internet Governance (Malto: Diplo Foundation 2014).
MacKinnon, Rebecca. Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom (New York: Basic Books, 2013).
Marlin-Bennett, Renée. “ICANN and Democracy: Contradictions and Possibilities.” info 3 (4) (2001), 299–311.
Marsh, David, and Jason C. Sharman. “Policy Diffusion and Policy Transfer.” Policy Studies 30 (3) (2009), 269–288.
Mathiason, John. Internet Governance: The New Frontier of Global Institutions (Abingdon: Routledge, 2008).
Maurer, Tim. “Cyber Norm Emergence at the United Nations.” Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program Discussion Paper (Boston: Harvard Kennedy School Belfer Center, 2011).
Mayo, Keenan, and Peter Newcomb. “How the Web Was Won: An Oral History of the Internet.” Vanity Fair 575 (2008), 96–117.
Mearsheimer, John J. “The False Promise of International Institutions.” International Security 19 (3) (1994), 5–49.
Meltzer, Joshua Paul. “The Internet, Cross-Border Data Flows and International Trade.” Asia and the Pacific Policy Studies 2 (1) (2015), 90–102.
Meseguer, Covadonga, and Fabrizio Gilardi. “What Is New in the Study of Policy Diffusion?” Review of International Political Economy 16 (3) (2009), 527–543.
Mueller, Milton L. “The Battle over Internet Domain Names: Global or National TLDs?” Telecommunications Policy 22 (2) (1998), 89–107.
Mueller, Milton L. Ruling the Root: Internet Governance and the Taming of Cyberspace (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002).
Mueller, Milton L. Networks and States: The Global Politics of Internet Governance (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2010).
Mueller, Milton, John Mathiason, and Hans Klein. “The Internet and Global Governance: Principles and Norms for a New Regime.” Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations 13 (2) (2007), 237–254.
Nonnecke, Brandie M. “The Transformative Effects of Multistakeholderism in Internet Governance: A Case Study of the East Africa Internet Governance Forum.” Telecommunications Policy 40 (4) (2016), 343–352.
Nye, Joseph S. Cyber Power (Cambridge, MA: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, 2010).
Nye, Joseph S. “The Regime Complex for Managing Global Cyber Activities.” Global Commission on Internet Governance Paper Series No. 1 (2014).
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). “Actions Taken by Regulatory Bodies and International Organisations following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident” (OECD, 2014).
Powers, Shawn, and Michael Jablonski. The Real Cyber War: The Political Economy of Internet Freedom (Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2015).
Raymond, Mark, and Laura DeNardis. “Multistakeholderism: Anatomy of an Inchoate Global Institution.” International Theory 7 (3) (2015), 572–616.
Risse, Thomas. “Transnational Actors and World Politics.” In Handbook of International Relations, eds. Walter Carlsnaes, Thomas Risse, and Beth A. Simmons (Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2002).
Rosenau, James N., and Miles D. Townes. “People on the Internet as Agents of Change.” In Governance, Regulations and Powers on the Internet, eds. Eric Brousseau, Meryem Marzouki, and Cécile Méadel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012).
Russell, Andrew L. “ ‘Rough Consensus and Running Code’ and the Internet-OSI Standards War.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 28 (3) (2006), 48–61.
Russell, Andrew L. “OSI: The Internet that Wasn’t.” IEEE Spectrum 50 (8) (2013), 39–43.
Sikkink, Kathryn. Ideas and Institutions: Developmentalism in Brazil and Argentina (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991).
Stone, Diane. Knowledge Actors and Transnational Governance: The Private-Public Policy Nexus in the Global Agora (New York: Springer, 2013).
“Tim Berners-Lee Takes the Stand to Keep the Web Free.” Wired, 8 February 2012. https://www.wired.com/2012/02/tim-berners-lee-patent.
Tso, Chen-Dong. “Computer Scientists and China’s Participation in Global Internet Governance.” Issues and Studies 44 (2) (2008), 103–144.
UNESCO (UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). “UNESCO Holds a Multistakeholder Consultation on Internet Universality Indicators at EuroDIG Conference,” 19 June 2017.
Weber, Steve. The Success of Open Source (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004).
Worthen, Ben. “Internet Strategy: China’s Next Generation Internet.” CIO Magazine, July 2006. https://www.cio.com/article/2445546/internet/internet-strategy--china-s-next-generation-internet.html.
WSIS (World Summit on the Information Society). “Tunis Agenda for the Information Society” (2005). www.itu.int/net/wsis/docs2/tunis/off/6rev1.html.
Yoshimatsu, Hidetaka. “Global Competition and Technology Standards: Japan’s Quest for Techno-Regionalism.” Journal of East Asian Studies 7 (3) (2007), 439–468.
Young, Oran R. “Regime Dynamics: The Rise and Fall of International Regimes.” International Organization 36 (2) (1982), 277–297.