Networking Responsibility

Regional Agents and Changing International Norms

In: Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations
View More View Less
  • 1 University of Maryland, The Bahá’í Chair for World Peace

Login via Institution

Purchase instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):



The rapid rise of the Responsibility to Protect and its establishment within the global lexicon is nothing short of astounding. However, there are a number of questions that remain unanswered: Who has the Responsibility to Protect? Who are they protecting? What are the wider implications of this concept of responsibility? How is the concept being operationalized? Regional and subregional organizations are seen as key actors in the operationalization of the Responsibility to Protect, providing increased legitimacy and accountability. This article situates these organizations within a wider “network of responsibility” and examines the impact this engagement has on norm contestation, diffusion, development, and operationalization. The article highlights the potential that regional and subregional organizations have for acting as “linchpins” within a network of responsibility. It also demonstrates the challenges surrounding this role, and the wider implementation and operationalization of the concept.

  • Acharya, Amitav. “How Ideas Spread: Whose Norms Matter? Norm Localization and Institutional Change in Asian Regionalism.” International Organization 58 (2) (2004), 239–275.

  • African Union, “Constitutive Act of the African Union” (2002).

  • Badescu, Cristina G., and Linnea Bergholm. “The Responsibility to Protect and the Conflict in Darfur: The Big Let-Down.” Security Dialogue 40 (3) (2009), 287–309.

  • Ban Ki-moon, Secretary-General. “Annual Address to the United Nations General Assembly.” UN Doc. SG/SM/11182 (25 September 2007).

  • Ban Ki-moon, Secretary-General. “Report of the Secretary-General on Implementing the Responsibility to Protect.” UN Doc. A/63/677 (21 January 2009).

  • Ban Ki-moon, Secretary-General. “Report of the Secretary-General on the Role of Regional and Sub-Regional Arrangements in Implementing the Responsibility to Protect.” UN Doc. A/65/877 (27 June 2011).

  • Barqueiro, Carla, Kate Seaman, and Katherine Teresa Towey. “Regional Organizations and Responsibility to Protect: Normative Reframing or Normative Change?” Politics and Governance 4 (3) (2016), 37–49.

  • Beck, Ulrich. Risk Society: Toward a New Modernity (London: Sage, 1992).

  • Beckfield, Jason. “Inequality in the World Polity: The Structure of International Organization.” American Sociological Review 68 (3) (2003), 401–424.

  • Beitzel, Terry. “The Process of (Nonviolent) Revolution and Max Weber’s Ethics of Responsibility.” International Journal on World Peace 31 (2) (2014), 11–34.

  • Bellamy, Alex J., and Ruben Reike. “The Responsibility to Protect and International Law.” Global Responsibility to Protect 2 (2010), 267–286.

  • Bellamy, Alex J., and Paul D. Williams. “The New Politics of Protection? Côte d’ Ivoire, Libya and the Responsibility to Protect.” International Affairs 87 (4) (2011), 825–850.

  • Belloni, Roberto. “Civil Society and the Responsibility to Protect.” Global Society 28 (2) (2014), 158–179.

  • Brigg, Morgan. “Humanitarian Symbolic Exchange: Extending Responsibility to Protect through Individual and Local Engagement.” Third World Quarterly 6597 (2017), 1–16.

  • Brommesson, Douglas, and Henrik Friberg Fernros. “Individualisation and Destabilisation of the International Order: The Case of the Responsibility to Protect.” International Review of Sociology 19 (2) (2009), 315–330.

  • Brooks, Thom. “Remedial Responsibilities beyond Nations.” Journal of Global Ethics 10 (2) (2014), 156–166.

  • Buzan, Barry. “The English School: An Underexploited Resource in IR TT.” Review of International Studies TA 27 (3) (2001), 471–488.

  • Castells, Manuel. The Rise of the Network Society, vol. 1 (London: Blackwell, 2010).

  • Chandler, David. “Rhetoric without Responsibility: The Attraction of ‘Ethical’ Foreign Policy.” The British Journal of Politics & International Relations 5 (2003), 295–316.

  • Chandler, David. “R2P or Not R2P? More Statebuilding, Less Responsibility.” Global Responsibility to Protect 2 (1–2) (2010).

  • Cook, Martin L. “Accountability for International Intervention/Protection Activities.” Criminal Justice Ethics 29 (2) (2010), 129–141.

  • Council on Foreign Relations. “ECOWAS in Côte d’ Ivoire.” (2010) Accessed 15 April 2018,

  • Cox, Robert W. “The Executive Head: An Essay on Leadership in International Organization.” International Organization 23 (2) (1969), 205–230.

  • de Waal, Alex. “Humanitarian Impunity: Somalia 1993 and Rwanda 1994.” In Famine Crimes: Politics and the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa, ed. Alex de Waal (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997), 179–203.

  • Dharmapuri, Sahana. “Implementing UN Security Council Resolution 1325: Putting the Responsibility to Protect into Practice.” Global Responsibility to Protect 4 (2) (2012), 241–272.

  • Doyle, Michael W. “The Politics of Global Humanitarianism: The Responsibility to Protect before and after Libya.” International Politics 53 (1) (2016), 14–31.

  • Duffield, Mark. Global Governance and the New Wars: The Merging of Development and Security (New York: Zed Books, 2001).

  • ECOWAS Bloc Threatens Ivory Coast Gbagbo with Force.” BBC News (2010). Accessed 15 April 2018,

  • Epp, Roger. “The Limits of Remorse: McNamara, Kissinger and the Ethics of Responsibility.” Global Society 11 (1) (1997), 45–60.

  • Eriksen, Erik O., and John E. Fossum. “Post-National Integration.” In Democracy in the European Union: Integration through Deliberation? eds. Erik O. Eriksen and John E. Fossum (London: Routledge, 2000).

  • Evans, Gareth, and Mohamed Sahnoun. “The Responsibility to Protect.” Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (Ottawa, ON, Canada: International Development Research Centre, 2001).

  • Finnemore, Martha, and Kathryn Sikkink. “International Norm Dynamics and Political Change.” International Organization 52 (4) (1998), 887–917.

  • Garsten, Christina, and Kerstin Jacobsson. “Transparency and Legibility in International Institutions: The UN Global Compact and Post-Political Global Ethics.” Social Anthropology 19 (4) (2011): 378–393.

  • Garwood-Gowers, Andrew. “The Responsibility to Protect and the Arab Spring: Libya as the Exception, Syria as the Norm?” University of New South Wales Law Journal 36 (2) (2013), 594–618.

  • Genocide Watch. “Côte d’ Ivoire/Ivory Coast” (2010).

  • Hafner-Burton, Emilie M., Miles Kahler, and Alexander H. Montgomery. “Network Analysis for International Relations.” International Organization 63 (3) (2009), 559–592.

  • Hakimi, Monica. “State Bystander Responsibility.” European Journal of International Law 21 (2) (2010), 341–385.

  • Havel, Vaclav. “The Politics of Responsibility.” World Policy Journal 12 (3) (1995), 81–87.

  • Hettne, Björn, and Fredrik Söderbaum. “The UN and Regional Organizations in Global Security: Competing or Complementary Logics?” Global Governance 12 (3) (2006), 227–232.

  • Hindawi, Coralie Pison. “What If R2P Was—Truly—Everyone’s Business? Exploring the Individual Responsibility to Protect.” Alternatives: Global, Local, Political 41 (1) (2016), 29–48.

  • Ignatieff, Michael. “Reimagining a Global Ethic.” Ethics and International Affairs 26 (1) (2012), 7–19.

  • Ikenberry, G. John. “The Future of Multilateralism: Governing the World in a Post-Hegemonic Era.” Japanese Journal of Political Science 16 (3) (2017), 399–413.

  • International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect. “The Crisis in Côte d’ Ivoire” (2010).

  • Jonsson, Christer. “Interorganization Theory and International Organization.” International Studies Quarterly 30 (1) (1986), 39–57.

  • Keck, Margaret E., and Kathryn Sikkink. “Activists beyond Borders: Transnational Advocacy Networks in International Politics.” In Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics, eds. Margaret E. Keck and Kathryn Sikkink (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998), 240.

  • Keohane, Robert O., and Joseph S. Nye. Power and Interdependence, 4th ed. (New York: Longman Classics, 2011).

  • Kirchner, Emil, and James Sperling. “The Challenge of Security Governance in a Changed and Changing International System.” United Nations University—Comparative Regional Integration Studies, Occasional Papers No. 9 (Tokyo: United Nations University—Comparative Regional Integration Studies, 2004).

  • Labonte, Melissa T. “Whose Responsibility to Protect? The Implications of Double Manifest Failure for Civilian Protection.” International Journal of Human Rights 16 (7) (2012), 982–1002.

  • Landsberg, Chris. “Pax South Africana and the Responsibility to Protect.” Global Responsibility to Protect 2 (2010), 436–457.

  • Luck, Edward C. “Sovereignty, Choice, and the Responsibility to Protect.” Global Responsibility to Protect 1 (1) (2009), 10–21.

  • Luck, Edward C. “The Responsibility to Protect: The First Decade.” Global Responsibility to Protect 3 (2011).

  • Luck, Edward C., and Dana Zaret Luck. “The Individual Responsibility to Protect.” In Reconstructing Atrocity Prevention, eds. Sheri Rosenberg, Tiberiu Galis, and Alex Zucker (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).

  • MacCormick, Neil. “Beyond the Sovereign State.” The Modern Law Review 56 (1) (1993), 1–18.

  • Mansell, Robin. Inside the Communication Revolution: Evolving Patterns of Social and Technical Interaction TT (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

  • McAdams, R. “The Origin, Development, and Regulation of Norms.” Michigan Law Review 96 (2) (1997), 338–433.

  • McGovern, Mike. “The Ivorian End Game.” Foreign Affairs (14 April 2011).

  • Morris, Justin. “The Responsibility to Protect and the Great Powers: The Tensions of Dual Responsibility.” Global Responsibility to Protect 7 (3–4) (2015).

  • Nussbaum, Martha C. “Patriotism and Cosmopolitanism.” In For Love of Country? Debating the Limits of Patriotism, ed. Joshua Cohen (Boston: Beacon Press, 2002), 2–17.

  • Office of the Prosecutor. “Statement by ICC Prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo on the Situation in Côte d’ Ivoire.” 21 December 2011.

  • Ohanyan, Anna. “Network Institutionalism and NGO Studies.” International Studies Perspectives 13 (4) (2012), 366–389.

  • Orford, Anne. “From Promise to Practice? The Legal Significance of the Responsibility to Protect Concept.” Global Responsibility to Protect 3 (4) (2011), 400–424.

  • Prantl, Jochen, and Ryoko Nakano. “Global Norm Diffusion in East Asia: How China and Japan Implement the Responsibility to Protect.” International Relations 25 (2) (2011), 204–233.

  • Rosenau, James N. Turbulence in World Politics: A Theory of Change and Continuity (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990).

  • Schmidt, Vivien A. “The European Union: Democratic Legitimacy in a Regional State?” Journal of Common Market Studies 42 (5) (2004), 975–997.

  • Seaman, Kate. “The Regionalization of the Responsibility to Protect.” In The Responsibility to Protect and the Third Pillar: Legitimacy and Operationalization, eds. Daniel Fiott and Joachim Koops (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), 58–77.

  • Sikkink, Kathryn. “Transnational Politics, International Relations Theory, and Human Rights.” Political Science and Politics 31 (3) (1998), 516–523.

  • Snyder, Glenn H. “Alliances, Balance, and Stability.” International Organization 45 (1) (1991), 121–142.

  • Sunstein, Cass R. “On the Expressive Function of Law.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 144 (1991) (1995): 2021–2054.

  • Sunstein, Cass R. Free Markets and Social Justice (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

  • Tan, Kok Chor. “Humanitarian Intervention as a Duty.” Global Responsibility to Protect 7 (2) (2015), 121–141.

  • UN. “United Nations Press Release: UN Secretary-General’s Special Advisers on the Prevention of Genocide and the Responsibility to Protect on the Situation in Côte d’Ivoire,” 29 December 2010.

  • UN. “Report of the Secretary-General on the Responsibility to Protect: Timely and Decisive Response.” UN Doc. A/66/874–S (June 2012), 1–7.

  • UN General Assembly. Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly on Friday 16 September 2005: World Summit Outcome. Resolution A/RES/60/1 (October 2005), 1–38.

  • UN Security Council. Resolution S/RES/1528 (2 February 2004).

  • UN Security Council. Resolution S/RES/1674 (28 April 2006).

  • UN Security Council. Resolution S/RES/1962 (2 December 2010).

  • Vidich, Arthur J. “Networks and the Theory of Modules in the Global Village.” International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society 11 (2) (1997), 213–243.

  • Visoka, Gëzim, and John Doyle. “Peacebuilding and International Responsibility.” International Peacekeeping 21 (5) (2014), 673–692.

  • Walzer, Michael. “Achieving Global and Local Justice.” Dissent 58 (3) (2011), 42–48.

  • Wasserman, S., and K. Faust. Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

  • Weissmann, Fabrice. “ ‘Not in Our Name’: Why Medecins Sans Frontieres Does Not Support the Responsibility to Protect.” Criminal Justice Ethics 29 (2) (2010), 194–207.

  • Welsh, Jennifer M. “Turning Words into Deeds? The Implementation of the ‘Responsibility to Protect.’ ” Protect 211 (2) (2010), 149–154.

  • Wheeler, Nicholas J. Saving Strangers: Humanitarian Intervention in International Society, vol. 3 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).

  • Williams, Paul D., and Alex J. Bellamy. “The Responsibility to Protect and the Crisis in Darfur.” Security Dialogue 36 (1) (2005), 27–47.

  • Wonicki, Rafał. “Global Ethics and Human Responsibility: Challenges for the Theory and the Discipline.” Journal of Global Ethics 10 (3) (2014), 261–266.

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 472 250 18
Full Text Views 113 53 6
PDF Downloads 77 33 6