Deviant Christians: Romanization and Esoterization as Social Strategies for Survival Among Early Christians

In: Gnosis: Journal of Gnostic Studies
View More View Less
  • 1 Chair of the Department of Religion, Rice University

Abstract

This paper explores the relationship between deviance and esotericism, particularly as this relationship relates to the emergence of new religious movements and the processes of social accommodation and resistance. Applying sociological models for the study of deviance, I show how emergent Catholics use a variety of accommodation strategies to better fit into Roman religious expectations, constructing a public face to their worship along with ancestral ties. As they do this, the emergent Catholics dissociate themselves from other Christians, like groups with gnostic orientations, whom they have marked as different from themselves and a liability for the survival of Christianity. They begin to argue that these “other” Christians are the deviant ones, not themselves. Their willingness to Romanize certain aspects of their religion reduces the tensile relationship between their new religion and the surrounding society, increasing their ability to attract and maintain new recruits. To make matters more complicated, gnostic groups largely resist accommodation to Roman religious expectations, a strategy that powers their countercultural critique of the hegemony of Rome. They esoterize their groups by privatizing and converting their deviance into secret social capital. The choice to maintain their deviance by limiting access to their internal social networks affects their ability to recruit, grow, and sustain their communities in the long term. The social politics of deviance goes a long way to explain the rise of Catholicism and its domination over other forms of Christianity.

  • Adler, Patricia A. and Peter Adler, eds. 2009. Constructions of Deviance: Social Power, Context, and Interaction. Belmont: Thompson Wadsworth.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aldridge, Alan. 2000. Religion in the Contemporary World: A Sociological Introduction. Oxford: Polity Press.

  • Allberry, C.R.C., eds. and trans. 1938. A Manichaean Psalm-Book Part II. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.

  • Armstrong, Arthur. 1966. Plotinus II: Ennead II, 1–9. Loeb Classical Library. Harvard University Press.

  • Athanassiadi, Polymnia and Michael Frede, eds. 1999. Pagan Monotheism in Late Antiquity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Baker-Brian, Nicholas J. 2011. Manichaeism: An Ancient Faith Rediscovered. London: T&T Clark.

  • Bardis, Panos D. 1979. “Social Interaction and Social Processes.” Social Science 54: 147167.

  • Beck, Alexander. 1930. Romisches Recht bei Tertullian und Cyprian. Halle: Max Niemeyer.

  • Beck, Roger. 2006. “The Religious Market of the Roman Empire: Rodney Stark and Christianity’s Pagan Competition.” Pages 233252 in Religious Rivalries in the Early Roman Empire and the Rise of Christianity. Studies in Christianity and Judaism 18. Edited by Leif E. Vaage. Canadian Corporation for Studies in Religion: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Becker, Howard S. 1963. Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York: The Free Press.

  • BeDuhn, Jason David. 2010. Augustine’s Manichaean Dilemma, 1: Conversion and Apostasy, 373–388 C.E. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Benko, Stephen. 1980. “Pagan Criticism of Christianity during the First Two Centuries A.D.” Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt II.23.2: 10551118.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berzon, Todd S. 2016. Classifying Christians: Ethnography, Heresiology, and the Limits of Knowledge in Late Antiquity. Oakland: University of California Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boin, Douglas. 2015. Coming Out Christian in the Roman World: How the Followers of Jesus Made a Place in Caesar’s Empire. New York: Bloomsbury.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Borret, Marcel, ed. 1969a. Origène Contre Celse. Volume 3. Sources Chrétiennes 147. Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf.

  • Borret, Marcel, ed. 1969b. Origène Contre Celse. Volume 4. Sources Chrétiennes 150. Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf.

  • Bourdieu, Pierre. 1981. The Logic of Practice. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

  • Bourdieu, Pierre. 1987. “Legitimation and Structure Interests in Weber’s Sociology of Religion.” Pages 119136 in Max Weber: Rationality and Modernity. Edited by S. Whimster and S. Lash. London: Allen and Unwin.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. Sociology in Question. London: Sage Publications.

  • Boys-Stones, George. 2016. “Providence and Religion in Middle Platonism.” Pages 317338 in Theologies of Ancient Greek Religion. Edited by Esther Eidinow, Julia Kindt, and Robin Osborne. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bremmer, Jan. N. 1995. “Religious Secrets and Secrecy in Classical Greece.” Pages 6178 in Secrecy and Concealment: Studies in the History of Mediterranean and Near Eastern Religions. Edited by Hans G. Kippenberg and Guy G. Stroumsa. Studies in the History of Religions 65. Leiden: Brill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bromley, David G. 2016. “As It Was in the Beginning: Developmental Moments in the Emergence of New Religious Movements.” Pages 98113 in The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements. Volume 2. Edited by James R. Lewis and Inga B. Tøllefsen. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bromley, David G. and J. Gordon Melton. 2012. “Reconceptualizing Types of Religious Organization: Dominant, Sectarian, Alternative, and Emergent Tradition Groups.” Nova Religio 15: 428.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen. 2002. The Mandaeans: Ancient Texts and Modern People. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Buell, Denise Kimber. 2005. Why this New Race: Ethnic Reasoning in Early Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press.

  • Bull, Christian H. 2015. “Ancient Hermeticism and Esotericism.” Aries 15: 109135.

  • Cahana, Jonathan. 2014. “None of Them Knew Me or My Brothers: Gnostic Antitraditionalism and Gnosticism as a Cultural Phenomenon.” The Journal of Religion 94: 4973.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cook, John G. 2010. Roman Attitudes Toward Christians: From Claudius to Hadrian. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

  • Dahl, Nils. 1981. “The Arrogant Archon and the Lewd Sophia: Jewish Tradition in Gnostic Revolt.” Pages 689712 in The Rediscovery of Gnosticism: Proceedings of the International Conference on Gnosticism at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut, March 28–31, 1978. Edited by Bentley Layton. Volume 2. Leiden: Brill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeConick, April D. 2013a. “Gnostic Spirituality at the Crossroads of Christianity: Transgressing Boundaries and Creating Orthodoxy.” Pages 148184 in Beyond the Gnostic Gospels. Edited by Eduard Iricinschi, Lance Jenott, Nicola Denzey Lewis, and Philippa Townsend. Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum 82. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeConick, April D. 2013b. “Crafting Gnosis: Gnostic Spirituality in the Ancient New Age.” Pages 285308 in Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World. Edited by Kevin Corrigan and Tuomas Rasimus. Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies 82. Leiden: Brill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeConick, April D. 2016a. The Gnostic New Age: How a Countercultural Spirituality Revolutionized Religion from Antiquity to Today. New York: Columbia University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeConick, April D. 2016b. “The Countercultural Gnostic: Turning the World Upside Down and Inside Out.” Gnosis 1: 735.

  • DeConick, April D. 2018. “The Gnostic Flip in the Mandaean Book of John.” Pages 2131 in The Mandaean Book of John: Critical Edition, Translation, and Commentary. Edited by Charles Häberl and James F. McGrath. Berlin: De Gruyter.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Denzin, Norman K. 1992. Symbolic Interactionism and Cultural Studies: The Politics of Interpretation. Cambridge: Blackwell.

  • Des Rosiers, Nathaniel P. and Lily C. Vuong, eds. 2016. Religious Competition in the Greco-Roman World. Writings from the Greco-Roman World Supplement Series 10. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deutsch, Nathaniel. 2007. “Save the Gnostics.” The Opinion Pages. The New York Times: A19, October 6, 2007.

  • DiMaggio, Paul and Walter Powell. 1983. “The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Rationality in Organizational Fields.” American Sociological Review 48: 147160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dodge, Bayard., ed. and trans. 1970. The Fihrist of al-Nadim: A Tenth-Century Survey of Muslim Culture. Vol. 2. New York: Columbia University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dotter, Daniel. 2004. Creating Deviance: An Interactionist Perspective. New York: Alta Mira Press.

  • Drake, Harold. 2000. Constantine and the Bishops: The Politics of Intolerance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

  • Droge, Arthur J. 1989. Homer or Moses? Early Christian Interpretations of the History of Culture. Mohr Siebeck: Tübingen.

  • Edwards, Mark. 2009. Catholicity and Heresy in the Early Church. Farnham: Ashgate.

  • Ehrman, Bart D. 2018. The Triumph of Christianity: How a Forbidden Religion Swept the World. New York: Simon and Schuster.

  • Engels, David. 2014. “Historising Religion between Spiritual Continuity and Friendly Takeover: Salvation History and Religious Competition during the First Millenium AD.” Pages 237284 in Religion and Competition in Antiquity. Edited by David Engels and Peter van Nuffelen. Collection Latomus 343. Bruxelles: Éditions Latomus.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Engels, David and Peter van Nuffelen, eds. 2014. Religion and Competition in Antiquity. Collection Latomus 343. Bruxelles: Éditions Latomus.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faivre, Antonie. 2010. Western Esotericism: A Concise History. Translated by Christine Rhone. Albany: State University of New York Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foucault, Michel. 2007. Security, Territory, Population: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1977–1978. Translated by Graham Burchell. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fox, Robin Lane. 1987. Pagans and Christians. New York: Knopf.

  • Franzese, Robert J. 2009. The Sociology of Deviance: Differences, Tradition, and Stigma. Springfield: Charles Thomas.

  • Gardner, Iain. 1995. The Kephalaia of the Teacher: The Edited Coptic Manichaean Texts in Translation with Commentary. Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies 37. Leiden: Brill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Geffcken, Johannes. 1929. Der Ausgang der griechisch-römischen Heidentums. Religionswissenschaftliche Bibliothek 6. Heidelberg: C. Winter.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goode, Erich. 2016. Deviant Behavior, 10th ed. London: Routledge.

  • Gordon, Richard. 2008. Superstitio, Superstition and Religious Repression in the Late Roman Republic and Principate (100 BCAD 300).” Pages 7294 in The Religion of Fools? Edited by Stephen Anthony Smith and Alan Knight. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grant, Robert M. 1966, rev. ed. Gnosticism and Early Christianity. New York: Harper and Row.

  • Grant, Robert M. 1986. Gods and the One God. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press.

  • Green, Henry A. 1985. The Economic and Social Origins of Gnosticism. SBL Dissertation Series 77. Atlanta: Scholars Press.

  • Hall, Stuart and Tony Jefferson. 1975. Resistance through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-War Britain. London: Routledge.

  • Hanegraaff, Wouter J. 2013. Western Esotericism: A Guide for the Perplexed. New York: Bloomsbury.

  • Hanegraaff, Wouter J. 2012. Esotericism and the Academy: Rejected Knowledge in Western Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haskell, Ellen D. 2016. Mystical Resistance: Uncovering the Zohar’s Conversations with Christianity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hebdige, Dick. 1979. Subculture: The Meaning of Style. London: Routledge.

  • Herrmann, Elisabeth. 1980. Ecclesia in Re Publica: Die Entwicklung der Kirche von pseudostaatlicher zu staatlich inkorporierte Existenz. Frankfurt: Peter D. Lang.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horsley, Richard A. 2003. Jesus and Empire: The Kingdom of God and the New World Disorder. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

  • Horsley, Richard A., eds. 2004. Hidden Transcripts and the Arts of Resistance: Applying the Work of James C. Scott to Jesus and Paul. Semeia Studies 48. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horsley, Richard A. 2010. Revolt of the Scribes: Resistance and Apocalyptic Origins. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

  • Hurtado, Larry W. 2016. Destroyer of the Gods: Early Christian Distinctiveness in the Roman World. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press.

  • Jetten, Jolanda and Matthew J. Hornsey. 2014. “Deviance and Dissent Within Groups.” Annual Review of Psychology 65:461485.

  • Johnson, Benton. 1963. “On Church and Sect.” American Sociological Review 28: 539549.

  • Kenney, John Peter. 1991. Mystical Monotheism: A Study in Ancient Platonic Theology. Providence: Brown University Press.

  • Kloppenborg, John S. 2017. “Larry W. Hurtado, Destroyer of the Gods: Early Christian Distinctiveness in the Roman World.” Bryn Mawr Classical Review, online blog.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koskenniemi, Erriki. 2013. “Philo and the Sophists.” Pages 253279 in Greeks, Jews, and Christians: Historical, Religious and Philological Studies in Honor of Jesús Peláez del Rosal. Edited by Lautaro Roig Lanzillotta and Israel Muñoz Gallarte. Estudio de Filología Neotestamentaria 10. Córdoba: Ediciones el Almendro.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacMullen, Ramsay. 1981. Paganism in the Roman Empire. New Haven: Yale University Press.

  • MacMullen, Ramsay. 1984. Christianizing the Roman Empire (A.D. 100–400). New Haven: Yale University Press.

  • Marcovich, Miroslav. 1986. Hippolytus Refutatio Omnium Haeresium. Patristische Texte Und Studien. New York: De Gruyter.

  • Martin, Luther H. 1995. “Secrecy in Hellenistic Religious Communities.” Pages 101121 in Secrecy and Concealment: Studies in the History of Mediterranean and Near Eastern Religions. Edited by Hans G. Kippenberg and Guy G. Stroumsa. Studies in the History of Religions 65. Leiden: Brill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, Thomas R. 2012. Ancient Rome: From Romulus to Justinian. New Haven: Yale University Press.

  • Mason, Steve. 2016. A History of the Jewish War A. D. 66–74. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Mazur, Zeke. 2013. “The Platonizing Sethian Gnostic Interpretation of Plato’s Sophist.” Pages 469493 in Practicing Gnosis: Ritual, Magic, Theurgy and Liturgy in Nag Hammadi, Manichaean and Other Ancient Literature. Essays in Honor of Birger A. Pearson. Edited by April D. DeConick, Gregory Shaw, and John D. Turner. Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies 85. Leiden: Brill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mazur, Zeke. 2016. “Forbidden Knowledge: Cognitive Transgression and ‘Ascent Above Intellect’ in the Debate Between Plotinus and the Gnostics.” Special Issue: Gnostic Countercultures. Edited by April D. DeConick and Lautaro Roig Lanzillotta. Gnosis: Journal of Gnostic Studies 1–2: 86109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meredith, Anthony. 1980. “Porphyry and Julian Against the Christians.” Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt II.23.2: 11191149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mitchell, Stephen and Peter van Nuffelen, eds. 2010a. One God: Pagan Monotheism in the Roman Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mitchell, Stephen and Peter van Nuffelen, eds. 2010b. Monotheism between Pagans and Christians in Late Antiquity. Interdisciplinary Studies in Ancient Culture and Religion. Leuven: Peeters.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mylonas, George E. 1961. Eleusis and the Eleusinian Mysteries. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Niebuhr, H. Richard. 1929. The Social Sources of Denominationalism. New York: Henry Holt.

  • Nock, Arthur D. 1933. Conversion: The Old and the New in Religion from Alexander the Great to Augustine of Hippo. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • North, John. 1992. “The Development of Religious Pluralism.” Pages 174193 in The Jews among Pagans and Christians in the Roman Empire. Edited by Judith Lieu, John North, and Tessa Rajak. New York: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Dea, Thomas. 1961. “Five Dilemmas in the Institutionalization of Religion.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 1: 3039.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, Robert E. and Ernest W. Burgess. 1921. Introduction to the Science of Sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Partridge, Christopher. 20042005. The Re-Enchantment of the West: Alternative Spiritualities, Sacralization, Popular Culture, and Occulture. 2 vols. London: T&T Clark.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pearson, Birger A. 1997. The Emergence of the Christian Religion. Harrisburg: Trinity Press International.

  • Pedersen, Nils Arne. 2012. “The Term ΜΥΣΤΗΡΙΟΝ in Coptic-Manichaean Texts.” Pages 133143 in Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices. Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty. Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies 76. Leiden: Brill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Portier-Young, Anathea E. 2011. Apocalypse Against Empire: Theologies of Resistance in Early Judaism. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Putnam, Robert. 1996. “The Strange Disappearance of Civic America.” The American Prospect 7: 118.

  • Roig Lanzillotta, Lautaro. 2007. “The Early Christians and Human Sacrifice.” Pages 81102 in The Strange World of Human Sacrifice. Edited by Jan N. Bremmer. Leuven: Peeters.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roig Lanzillotta, Lautaro. 2010. “Christian Apologists and Greek Gods.” Pages 442464 in The Gods of Ancient Greece. Edited by J.N. Bremmer and A. Erskine. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roig Lanzillotta, Lautaro. 2018. “Ancient Greek Patterns of Knowledge Transmission and their Continuity in Gnostic Esotericism.” Pages 121144 in Sharing and Hiding Religious Knowledge in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—Tension, Transmission, Transformation. Volume 10. Edited by Mladen Popovic, Lautaro Roig Lanzillotta, and Clare Wilde. Tübingen: DeGruyter.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rüpke, Jörg. 2016. Religious Deviance in the Roman World: Superstition or Individuality? Translated by David M.B. Richardson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rousseau, Adelin and Louis Doutreleau, eds. 1979. Irénée de Lyon: Contre les Hérésies. Livre 1. Vol. 2. Sources Chrétiennes 264. Paris: Éditions du Cerf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rudolph, Kurt. 1983. Gnosis: The Nature and History of Gnosticism. Trans. and ed. by R. McL. Wilson. San Francisco: Harper and Row.

  • Schellenberg, James A. 1996. Conflict Resolution: Theory, Research, and Practice. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  • Scott, James C. 1990. Hidden Transcripts: Domination and the Arts of Resistance. New Haven: Yale University Press.

  • Segal, Alan F. 1977. Two Powers in Heaven: Early Rabbinic Reports about Christianity and Gnosticism. New Haven: Yale University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shupe, Anson. 1992. “The Accommodation and Reradicalization of Innovative Religious Movements.” Pages 2839 in Religion and Politics in Comparative Perspective: Revival of Religious Fundamentalism in East and West. Edited by Bronislaw Misztal and Anson Shupe. London: Praeger.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simmel, Georg. 1906. “The Sociology of Secrecy and of Secret Societies.” American Journal of Sociology 11: 441498.

  • Smith, Carl A. 2004. No Longer Jews: The Search for Gnostic Origins. Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers.

  • Stark, Rodney. 1996a. The Rise of Christianity: How the Obscure, Marginal Jesus Movement Became the Dominant Religious Force in the Western World in a Few Centuries. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stark, Rodney. 1996b. “Why Religious Movements Succeed or Fail: A Revised General Model.” Journal of Contemporary Religion 11:133146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stark, Rodney and William Sims Bainbridge. 1985. The Future of Religion: Secularization, Revival, and Cult Formation. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stark, Rodney and William Sims Bainbridge. 1987. A Theory of Religion. Peter Lang.

  • Stark, Rodney and Roger Finke. 2000. Acts of Faith: Explaining the Human Side of Religion. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • Stone, Michael E. 2018. Secret Groups in Ancient Judaism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Stuckrad, Kocku von. 2010. Locations of Knowledge in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Esoteric Discourse and Western Identities. Leiden: Brill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Torjesen, Karen Jo. 2008. “Clergy and Laity.” Pages 389405 in The Oxford Handbook of Early Christian Studies. Edited by Susan Ashbrook Harvey and David G. Hunter. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ulrich, Jörg. 2014. “Apologists and Apologetics in the Second Century.” Pages 132 in In Defence of Christianity: Early Christian Apologists. Edited by Jakob Engberg, Anders-Christian Jacobsen, and Jörg Ulrich. Early Christianity in the Context of Antiquity 15. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Urban, Hugh B. 2001. “The Adornment of Silence: Secrecy and Symbolic Power in American Freemasonry.” Journal of Religion and Society 3: 129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vaage, Leif E., eds. 2006. Religious Rivalries in the Early Roman Empire and the Rise of Christianity. Studies in Christianity and Judaism 18. Canadian Corporation for Studies in Religion: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Versnel, Henk S. 1990. Inconsistencies in Greek and Roman Religion: Ter Unus. Isis, Dionysos, Hermes: Three Studies in Henotheism. Vol. 1. Studies in Greek and Roman Religion. Leiden: Brill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Versnel, Henk S. 2011. Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology. Religions in the Graeco-Roman World. Leiden: Brill.

  • Wallis, Roy. 1984. The Elementary Forms of the New Religious Life. London: Routledge and Paul Kegan.

  • Wendt, Heidi. 2016. At the Temple Gates: The Religion of Freelance Experts in the Roman Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Whittaker, John. “ΕΠΕΚΕΙΝΑ ΝΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΟΥΣΙΑΣ.” Vigiliae Christianae 23: 91104.

  • Wilken, Robert L. 1984. The Christians as the Romans Saw Them. New Haven: Yale University Press.

  • Williams, Michael A. 2013. “Did Plotinus’ ‘Friends’ Still Go to Church? Communal Rituals and Ascent Apocalypses.” Pages 495522 in Practicing Gnosis: Ritual, Magic, Theurgy and Liturgy in Nag Hammadi, Manichaean and Other Ancient Literature. Essays in Honor of Birger A. Pearson. Edited by April D. DeConick, Gregory Shaw, and John D. Turner. Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies 85. Leiden: Brill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Willis, Paul. 1978. Profane Culture. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

  • Wilson, Bryan R. 1967. “An Analysis of Sect Development.” Pages 2245 in Patterns of Sect Development: Organisation and Ideology in Social and Religious Movements. Edited by Bryan R. Wilson. London: Heinemann.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson, Stephen G. 1995. Related Strangers: Jews and Christians 70–170 CE. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

  • Wolfreys, Julian. 2008. Transgression: Identity, Space, Time. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Yamauchi, Edwin. 1978. “The Descent of Ishtar, the Fall of Sophia, and the Jewish Roots of Gnosticism.” Tyndale Bulletin 29: 169174.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 179 64 3
Full Text Views 68 8 1
PDF Downloads 29 5 1