Inspired by Schlenker’s (2003) seminal Plea for Monsters, linguists have been analyzing every occurrence of a shifted indexical by postulating a monstrous operator. The author’s aim in this paper is to show that Kaplan’s (1989) original strategy of explaining apparent shifting in terms of a quotational use/mention distinction offers a much more intuitive, parsimonious and empirically superior analysis of many of these phenomena, including direct–indirect switches in Ancient Greek, role shift in signed languages, free indirect discourse in literary narratives, and mixed quotation.
MaierEmar. Forthcoming. “The Pragmatics of Attraction: Explaining Unquotation in Direct and Free Indirect Discourse.” In The Semantics and Pragmatics of Quotation edited by Paul Saka and Michael Johnson. Berlin: Springer. Accessed May 3 2016. http://ling.auf.net/lingbuzz/002966.
PaginPeter and WesterståhlDag. 2011. “
Pure Quotation and General Compositionality.” Linguistics and Philosophy33 (5): 381–415. doi:
———. 2011. “
Indexicality and De Se Reports.” In Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning edited by von HeusingerKlausMaienbornClaudia and PortnerPaul1561–1604. The Hague: De Gruyter.
Pagin and Westerståhl (2011) argue that the pure quotation component that Potts’ account builds makes the account non-compositional but this subtlety need not concern us here.
Clark and Gerrig1990.
Cappelen and Lepore1997.
Shan (2011) and Recanati (2008) come close to adopting this strategy. Consider for instance the following passage: “[(41a)] involves what I dubbed a language-shift: the words within the quotation marks are interpreted as belonging to the ‘language’ (idiolect) of the source and this affects not only their content but also their linguistic meaning or character. Yet as I pointed out in several places the two phenomena can be unified if we let the language spoken in a context be one of the coordinates of the context in question." Nonetheless for the reason mentioned in footnote 20 Recanati might object to this characterization pointing out that in his account the context shift is pragmatic or pre-semantic rather than semantic.
Recanati (2001) makes the same point confirming that we can’t simply take the quote in footnote 31 as an endorsement of supermonsters.