Two Kinds of Soft Facts

in Grazer Philosophische Studien
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?


The concept of soft facts is crucial for the Ockhamistic analysis of the divine knowledge of future contingents; moreover, this notion is important in itself because it concerns the structure of the facts that depend—in some sense—on other future facts. However, the debate on soft facts is often flawed by the unaware use of two different notions of soft facts. The facts of the first kind are supervenient on temporal facts: By bringing about a temporal fact, the agent can bring about these facts. However, on the one hand, the determination of the existence of these facts does not affect the past; on the other hand, assimilating divine knowledge into this kind of facts does not help the Ockhamist. The authors will argue that, to vindicate Ockhamism, another definition of “soft fact” is necessary, which turns out to be much more demanding from a metaphysical point of view.

Two Kinds of Soft Facts

in Grazer Philosophische Studien



Bliss Ricki & Trogdon Kelly 2014: “Metaphysical Grounding”. In: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by Zalta Edward N.

Correia Fabrice & Schnieder Benjamin 2012: Metaphysical Grounding: Understanding the Structure of Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Craig William Lane 1986: “Temporal Necessity; Hard Facts/Soft Facts.” International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 206591.

Craig William Lane 1991: Divine Foreknowledge and Human Freedom. The Coherence of Theism . Leiden: Brill.

Fine Kit 1994: “Essence and Modality: The Second Philosophical Perspectives Lecture.” Philosophical Perspectives 8116.

Fine Kit 2012: “Guide to Ground.” In: Correia Fabrice & Schnieder Benjanmin (eds.) Metaphysical Grounding: Understanding the Structure of Reality . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press3780.

Freddoso Alfred 1983: “Accidental Necessity and Logical Determinism.” The Journal of Philosophy 80257278.

Hoffman Joshua & Rosenkrantz Gary 1984: “Hard and Soft Facts.” The Philosophical Review 93419434.

McCord Adams Marilyn 1967: “Is the Existence of God a ‘Hard’ Fact?The Philosophical Review 76492503.

Merricks Trenton 2009: “Truth and Freedom.” The Philosophical Review 1182958.

Merricks Trenton 2011: “Foreknowledge and Freedom.” The Philosophical Review 120567586.

Pendergraft Garrett & Coates Justin D. 2014: “No (New) Troubles with Ockhamism.” In Kvanvig Jonathan (ed.) Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion vol. v. Oxford: Oxford University Press185208.

Plantinga Alvin 1986: “On Ockham’s Way Out.” Faith and Philosophy 3235269.

Reichenbach Hans 1956: The Direction of Time . Berkeley–Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Rodriguez-Pereyra Gonzalo 2005: “Why Truthmakers.” In: Beebee Helen & Dodd Julian (eds.) Truthmakers: The Contemporary Debate. Oxford: Oxford University Press1731.

Rosen Gideon 2010: “Metaphysical Dependence: Grounding and Reduction.” In: Hale Bob & Hoffmann Aviv (eds.) Modality. Metaphysics Logic and Epistemology. ­Oxford: Oxford University Press109136.

Saunders John Turk 1966: “Of God and Freedom.” The Philosophical Review 75219225.

Swenson Philip 2016: “Ability, Foreknowledge, and Explanatory Dependence.” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94658671.

Todd Patrick 2013: “Soft Facts and Ontological Dependence.” Philosophical Studies 164829844.

Zemach Eddy M. & Widerker David 1988: “Facts, Freedom, and Foreknowledge.” Religious Studies 231928.


Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 18 18 9
Full Text Views 8 8 8
PDF Downloads 2 2 2
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0