The UN Security Council Divided: Syria in Crisis

in Global Responsibility to Protect
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The UN Security Council Divided: Syria in Crisis

in Global Responsibility to Protect

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References

  • 1

    Rod Nordland‘Ghastly Images Flow from Shattered Syrian City’The New York Times22 February 2012 http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/23/world/middleeast/ghastly-images-flow-from-shattered-city-of-homs-syria.html?pagewanted=all accessed 25 June 2012.

  • 8

    David Kenner‘Massacre City’Foreign Policy5 August 2011 http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/08/05/massacre_city?page=00 accessed 20 June 2012.

  • 9

    Peter Kellier‘Ghosts of Syria: Diehard Militias Who Kill in the Name of Assad’The Guardian31 May 2012 http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/may/31/ghosts-syria-regime-shabiha-militias accessed 20 June 2012.

  • 11

    Jonathan Masters‘Syria’s Crisis and the Global Response’Council on Foreign Relations11 June 2012 http://www.cfr.org/syria/syrias-crisis-global-response/p28402 accessed 23 June 2012.

  • 14

    Ian Black‘Kofi Annan Attacks Russia and West’s “Destructive Competition” Over Syria’The Guardian6 July 2012 http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/jul/06/kofi-annan-syria-destructive-competition?INTCMP=SRCH accessed 6 July 2012.

  • 16

    Michael Slackman‘Syria’s Cabinet Resigns; Concessions Expected’The New York Times29 March 2011 http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/30/world/middleeast/30syria.html accessed 10 July 2012.

  • 17

    Raymond Hinnebusch‘Syria: From ‘Authoritarian Upgrading’ to Revolution?’International Affairs88/1:95-113 (2012) p. 106.

  • 19

    S/PV.6627 4 October 2011p. 6.

  • 20

    What’s in Blue‘Insights on Syria’Security Council Report27 April 2011 http://whatsinblue.org/2011/04/insights-on-syria-1.php accessed 6 July 2012.

  • 21

    What’s in Blue‘Insights on Syria’Security Council Report28 April 2011 http://whatsinblue.org/2011/04/insights-on-syria-2.php accessed 23 May 2012.

  • 22

    Colum Lynch‘New UN Bloc Finds Constraining the West Preferable to Constraining Syria’Foreign Policy10 August 2011 http://turtlebay.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2011/08/10/new_un_bloc_finds_constraining_the_west_preferable_to_restraining_syria accessed 24 May 2012.

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    What’s In Blue‘Consultations on Syria’Security Council Report1 August 2011 http://whatsinblue.org/2011/08/consultations-on-syria.php accessed 24 May 2012.

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  • 26

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  • 27

    S/PV.6598 3 August 2011pp. 2-3.

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    S/PV.6711 4 February 2012p. 9.

  • 30

    S/PV.6627 4 October 2011p. 11.

  • 31

    What’s in Blue‘Syria Sanctions Resolution’Security Council Report25 August 2011 http://whatsinblue.org/2011/08/syria-sanctions-resolution.php accessed 24 May 2012.

  • 32

    What’s in Blue‘Council Negotiations on Syria Resolution’Security Council Report28 September 2011 http://whatsinblue.org/2011/09/consultations-on-syria-2.php accessed 24 May 2012.

  • 34

    S/2011/612 4 October 2011.

  • 35

    S/PV.6627 4 October 2011p. 4.

  • 36

    David Batty and Jack Shenker‘Syria Suspended from Arab League’The Guardian12 November 2011 http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/nov/12/syria-suspended-arab-league accessed 21 June 2012.

  • 37

    Michelle Shephard‘Critics Question Why Sudanese General is Leading Observers in Syria’Toronto Star4 January 2012 http://www.thestar.com/news/world/article/1110581--critics-question-why-sudanese-general-is-leading-observers-in-syria accessed 24 May 2012.

  • 38

    Martin Chulov‘Arab League Official Attacks Syria Mission as a “Farce”’The Guardian11 January 2012 http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/jan/11/arab-league-official-syria-mission-farce accessed 21 May 2012.

  • 39

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  • 40

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  • 44

    S/2012/77 4 February 2012p. 2.

  • 45

    S/PV.6711 4 February 2012p. 5.

  • 46

    S/PV.6711 4 February 2012p. 6.

  • 49

    A/RES/66/253 21 February 2012.

  • 50

    A/HRC/19/69 22 February 2012p. 1.

  • 51

    S/PRST/2012/6 21 March 2012.

  • 53

    SC/10585 21 March 2012.

  • 55

    What’s in Blue‘Syria Draft Presidential Statement and Press Statement’Security Council Report19 March 2012 http://whatsinblue.org/2012/03/syria-presidential-statement.php accessed 21 June 2012.

  • 56

    What’s In Blue‘Continuing Negotiations on a Syria Draft Resolution’Security Council Report13 April 2012 http://whatsinblue.org/2012/04/continuing-negotiations-on-a-syria-draft-resolution.php accessed 1 May 2012.

  • 57

    S/PV.6751 14 April 2012.

  • 58

    S/PV.6756 21 April 2012.

  • 59

    Colum Lynch‘Western-backed Draft Resolution Calling for the Establishment of Full Fledged Monitoring Mission in Syria’Foreign Policy20 April 2012 http://turtlebay.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2012/04/20/western_backed_draft_resolution_calling_for_the _establishment_of_full_fledged_monit accessed 27 April 2012 and Colum Lynch ‘Russia Opposes Threat of Sanctions Offers its own Competing Draft Resolution on UN Monitors’ Foreign Policy 20 April 2012 http://turtlebay.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2012/04/20/russia _opposes_threat_of_syria_sanctions_offers_its_own_competing_draft_resolution_ accessed 27 April 2012.

  • 60

    S/RES/2043 21 April 2012p. 3.

  • 61

    What’s in Blue‘Briefing on UN Mission in Syria’Security Council Report7 May 2012 http://whatsinblue.org/2012/05/briefing-on-un-mission-in-syria.php# accessed 19 June 2012.

  • 62

    Rick Gladstone and Ravi Somaiya‘Doubt is Cast on Mission by Monitors Inside Syria’The New York Times19 June 2012 http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/20/world/middleeast/insurer-cancels-policy-on-syria-bound-russian-ship.html?_r=1&ref=world accessed 21 June 2012.

  • 64

    Ian Black‘Syrian President Assad Blames “Foreign Conspiracies” for Crisis’The Guardian10 January 2012 http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/jan/10/syrian-president-assad-foreign-conspiracies?INTCMP=SRCH accessed 25 June 2012.

  • 66

    S/PV.6711 4 February 2012.

  • 68

    S/2011/612 4 October 2011.

  • 69

    S/2012/77 4 February 2012.

  • 70

     See S/PV.6627 4 October 2011p. 4.

  • 71

    S/PV.6627 4 October 2011p. 4.

  • 72

    S/PV.6627 4 October 2011p. 4.

  • 73

    Richard Galpin‘Russian Arms Shipments Bolster Syria’s Embattled Assad’BBC30 January 2012 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-16797818 accessed 29 June 2012.

  • 74

    Andrew E. Kramer‘Unrest in Libya and the Middle East is Costing the Russian Arms Industry’The New York Times4 March 2011 http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/world/europe/05russia.html accessed 29 June 2012.

  • 75

    Frank Gardner‘How Vital is Syria’s Tartus Port to Russia?’BBC27 June 2012 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-18616191 accessed 28 June 2012.

  • 76

    Marc Bennetts‘What’s Behind Russia’s Stance on Syria?’RIA Novosti31 May 2012 http://en.rian.ru/analysis/20120531/173776552.html accessed 28 June 2012.

  • 77

    Courtney B. SmithPolitics and Process at the United Nations: The Global Dance (London: Lynne Rienner Publishers2006) p. 192.

  • 78

    Author Interview 2011Interview with Colin Keating from Security Council Report 17 February New York.

  • 84

    Bayram Balci‘Turkey’s Relations with the Syrian Opposition’Carnegie Endowment for International Peace13 April 2012 http://carnegieendowment.org/2012/04/13/turkey-s-relations-with-syrian-opposition# accessed 4 July 2012.

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