Women, Peace and Security (wps) as a global agenda has gained traction since it was institutionalized in the United Nations Security Council fifteen years ago. By December 2014, 46 out of 193 Member States of the United Nations have adopted their National Action Plans to systematically implement their respective country commitments to wps. To date, 24 of the countries with National Action Plans are in Europe while 13 are in Africa; the Asia Pacific Region has 6 and the Americas have 3. In Southeast Asia, only the Philippines has developed a National Action Plan within the framework of the wps while other countries integrated it in the existing broad policy and programmatic frames such as addressing violence against women. At the level of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (asean), taking on the agenda of women, peace and security has yet to move beyond communicative rhetoric. This paper is an attempt to explore how wps can be made part of the regional agenda on human protection and mass atrocities prevention, by mapping out discursive and institutional entry points within several asean Member States and within asean itself through the idea of multi-focal norm entrepreneurship.
See for example Miranda Alison‘Wartime Sexual Violence: Women’s Human Rights and Questions of Masculinity’Review of International Studies33:75–90 (2007); Susan Brownmiller Against Our Will: Men Women and Rape (New York: Fawcett Columbine 1975); Radhika Coomaraswamy ‘Of Kali Born: Violence and the Law in Sri Lanka’ in Margaret Schuler (ed.) Freedom from Violence: Women’s Strategies from Around the World (New York: Widbooks 1992); Todd Salzman. ‘Rape Camps as a Means of Ethnic Cleansing: Religious Cultural and Ethical Responses To Rape Victims in Former Yugoslavia’ Human Right Quarterly 20:348–78 (1998); Mary Ann Tetreault ‘Justice for All: Wartime Rape and Women’s Human Rights’ Global Governance 3/2:197–212 (1997); and Nira Yuval-Davis Gender and Nation (London: Sage Publications 1997).
Ma. Lourdes Veneracion-Rallonza‘Grounding the International Norm on Women, Peace and Security: The Role of Domestic Norm Entrepreneurs and the Challenges Ahead’Femina Politica22/2: 67–85 (2013) p. 70.