Growing international solidarity for protection principles has formed the backdrop for an evolving notion of human protection at the un in the post-Cold War era. The emergence of the ‘Human Rights up Front’ initiative, protection of children and Women, Peace and Security policy agendas, and normative frameworks such as the protection of civilians and the Responsibility to Protect are indicative of a tangible human protection agenda at the un. However, the extent to which human protection norms have diffused in different regions vary in important ways. Africa – one region or many – has been a norm maker, shaper and taker, as well as a major recipient of action in accordance with this nascent normative regime. This article provides an overview of regionalism in Africa and examines how perspectives and institutional expressions at the regional level(s) have been influenced by – and in turn influenced – the uptake and development of norms around human protection.
Ian ClarkLegitimacy in International Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press2005) p. 6; Tim Dunne ‘The New Agenda’ in Alex J. Bellamy (ed.) International Society and Its Critics (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2004) p. 66.
Tim DunneInventing International Society: A History of the English School (London: Macmillan1998). For discussion of solidarist and pluralist conceptions of regionalism refer to article in this issue by Noel Morada.
Jeffrey T. Checkel‘The Constructivist Turn in International Relations Theory’World Politics50/2: 324–48 (1998). See for example: Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink ‘International Norm Dynamics and Political Change’ International Organization 52/4: 887–917 (1998).
See: Amitav Acharya‘How Ideas Spread: Whose Norms Matter? Norm Localization and Institutional Change in Asian Regionalism’International Organization58/2: 239–75 (2004); Amitav Acharya Whose Ideas Matter? Agency and Power in Asian Regionalism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press 2009).
Jennifer Welsh‘Norm Contestation and the Responsibility to Protect’Global Responsibility to Protect5/4: 365–396 (2013). See also: Michael Barnett and Thomas G. Weiss Humanitarianism Contested: Where Angels Fear to Tread (London: Routledge 2011) pp. 8–34.
Originally created in2002. See for example: Angela Meyer ‘Peace and Security Cooperation in Central Africa: Challenges and Prospects’ Discussion Paper 56 (Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet 2011). See also: http://www.irinnews.org/report/100815/central-african-peacekeeping-force-gears-up-for-action.
Paul D. Williams‘From non-intervention to non-indifference: the origins and development of the African Union's security culture’African Affairs106/423: 253–279 (2007); Williams ‘The “Responsibility to Protect” Norm Localisation and African International Society’ pp. 392–416.