This paper re-examines several standing assumptions about the lyre-types of early Iron Age (ia) Cyprus and how these should be correlated with historical and cultural phases on the island, specifically the pre-Greek (‘Eteocypriot’) Late Bronze Age (LBA); Aegean immigration in the twelfth and eleventh centuries; and the so-called Phoenician colony period from the ninth century. I introduce an important new piece of lba evidence connecting the island to the lyric culture of the Levant; challenge the usual ‘Aegean’ interpretation of ia round-based lyres; and reassess the evidence of the so-called Cypro-Phoenician symposium bowls, which exhibit a basic bifurcation between ‘eastern’ and ‘western’ morphologies (as traditionally interpreted). A clearer sense of Cypriot musical identity, as distinct from Aegean and Phoenician, emerges, and new methodological guidelines are developed for future investigations.
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Smith2008261264-74 noting that political control of Kition may not have been continuous down to the fifth century.
Maas & Snyder19898making the point that they are the only representations from the Dark Age.
Fariselli200713nn. 15-16 19 23 with further analysis of dance in Fariselli 2010.
This paper supersedes Franklin200644-5. Kinyras generally: Baurain 1980; relationship to Ugaritic Kinnāru: Ribichini 1982; Franklin in press-b. I shall treat the problem fully in Franklin forthcoming.
Franklin200647; Franceschetti 2008 313-15.
Foster197950and n. 316. It is not clear whether she interprets our bowl as a musician or has in mind the lute-player bowls (v. infra).
See esp. Peltenburg1986155-61(158 for dating) noting lack of stylistic deviations which might betray Cypriot manufacture; he challenges their critical reception as ‘poor local copies of Egyptian work’ (Peltenburg 1972 p. 131); Levantine workshop(s) are considered possible but less likely (contrast Peltenburg 1968 143-51). But note that other types can be attributed to a Cypriot faience industry: Foster 1979 49-55; Karageorghis Mertens & Rose 2000 62.
Cf. Peltenburg1968304(bowl no. 5d): ‘To the left a female with calf-length billowing robes. She seems to hold something over a papyrus which grows from the boat but the brown designs are too fugitive here to make it out’.
Bes and music: Hickmann196136-9figs. 15-17; Manniche 1991 48 fig. 26 57-8 and fig. 32 110 116-19 passim with fig. 72.
Egypt: Manniche199186fig. 50. Hittite/Neo-Hittite: Schuol 2004 Taf. 4 no. 11 and 15 7 no. 26 9 no. 29 11 no. 35 12 no. 37-8. With lutes the question may arise whether these tassels are not rather the ends of strings. Even when their position at the end of the neck makes this possible they are sufficiently long that one must suppose that they have been worked into an adornment (cf. Schuol 2004 59). In other cases the tassels come from the middle of the neck.
Βowl: Markoe1985Cy13 (Kourion) where the rightmost musician of a trio (probably double-piper) clearly has the cape; Culican 1982 15 and n. 6 detected one on the second (lyrist) as well and noted the Nimrud bowl (Mallowan 1966 no. 531; assignment to NS group: Barnett 1935 189).
Megiddo lyrist: Frankfort1970270-1. Egypt: Manniche 1991 43 fig. 21 86 fig. 50 89 fig. 52 91 fig. 54 (twice); also Wegner 1950 Taf. 7a 9a-b (the dimensions of 9b being close to our lyrist). The vertical position is see in Manniche 1991 48 fig. 26 53 no. 30.
See e.g. Hickmann19612.1 30-1 (fig. 8). For the court of Akhenaten: Green 1992.
Courtois1971326-56(note esp. 348 fig. 145); Karageorghis 1991-1999 II 64-5 dating late lc III/early cg ia; so too Webb 1999 112; Webb 2001 76 79.
Schaeffer1952pl. VII.1 3-5; further references in Courtois & Webb 1987 76 n. 249 78 n. 253; in the fascinating ideological scheme of Webb 2002 these scenes exemplify obedience to authority/maintenance of political status quo. Two such seals show a figure carrying an object interpreted as a stringed instrument (Aign 1963 60 with fig. 25) but this is very doubtful. The objects not resembling each other also find no parallels among known representations of lyres and harps; are in impossible playing positions; and would have horizontal strings. First seal: Schaeffer 1952 pl. VII.4; Webb 1999 272-3 fig. 87.2. Second seal: Gjerstad et al. 1934-1972 I 474 no. 67 and pl. LXXVI no. 67 (‘From the left approaches a procession of four adorers. The first of them holds a lyre’); Karageorghis 2003 280-1 no. 320 with comments of D. Collon who more plausibly suggests that it is a fan comparing Collon 1987 no. 270.
Coldstream1989esp. 330-1 (eleventh-century chamber-tombs with long drómoi have higher concentration of status symbols than other burial types and appear in areas of later Greek-speaking kingdoms); cf. Rupp 1985 126-7; Sherratt 1992 330.
See Gjerstad194657 diagnosing Cypriot pottery and dress in Cy3 (Idalion his Proto-Cypriote I class which otherwise exhibits clear NS stylistic traits: Falsone 1988 96) and Cy5 (Kourion Gjerstad’s Proto-Cypriote III).
Culican198214(vehicles in outer band of Cy13).
Neri20004-5with her table.
Markoe198559(but cf. Winter 1990 241); Neri 2000 4-5; Fariselli 2007 13-14. G3 however also appears to depict a male deity (Markoe 1985 204).
Fariselli200713(comparing cultic costumes of Cr7 and G8); Fariselli 2010 14-16.
Note the suggestion of Fariselli201016that the offering-bearers of Cy6 are also dancing.
Neri20003-4; Fariselli 2010 13-14.
Fariselli200711and n. 6 would see single-pipes on Cy5 and Cy7. But these are surely double shown in parallel (as often in Greece); this seems guaranteed by Comp7 where the pipes diverge just enough to prove their doubleness. Her final single-pipe example (Cy13 inner band) is more persuasive; but here the exceptional rustic context (played by stable-boy) only proves the rule that the more sophisticated cult-music used double-pipes.
Note esp. Mitford196113no. 32: ὁ ἀρχὸς τῶν Κινυραδῶν (Hellenistic). Is it significant that ‘western’ lyres are never duplicated? Or this due to the late and abbreviated nature of these particular scenes?
By catalogue numbers in Markoe1985except for OJA = Popham 1995.
L. R. Binford quoted by Winter199014.
Synopsis in Neri20003-13noting e.g. emphasis on martial themes and exclusively funerary find-contexts; Markoe 2003 213-5 (materials/media).