Aristophanes’ Bacchylides: Reading Birds 1373–1409

in Greek and Roman Musical Studies
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

The significance of Aristophanes in the history of ancient literary criticism cannot be doubted. Equally undoubted is also the dismissive attitude that he appears to have towards the musical and poetic innovations of the late-fifth century BC. This position of his becomes essential when one considers the manner in which he treats the appraised canonical lyric poets and the contemned representatives of the New Dithyramb. This paper is concerned with the reading specifically of Bacchylides in Aristophanes. It argues in favour of the use of Bacchylides’ Ode 5 to Hieron in Birds 1373-1409 as well as for the poem’s reconfiguration by Kinesias within the context of the New Music. In the process it will allow us to comment on a number of poetic characteristics of Bacchylides’ poetry and also to draw conclusions on Bacchylides’ status within the melic tradition as the poet in-between classical lyric poetry and the New Music.

Aristophanes’ Bacchylides: Reading Birds 1373–1409

in Greek and Roman Musical Studies

Sections

References

Angeli BernardiniP. L’aquila tebana vola ancora OUCC 1977 26 121 126

AthanassakiL. Aeideto pan temenos. Oi Chorikes Parastaseis kai to koino tous stēn archaikē kai proimē klassikē periodo 2009 Herakleion

BarkerA. Greek Musical Writings I: The Musician and his Art 1984 Cambridge

BarkerA. MurrayP.WilsonP. Transforming the Nightingale: Aspects of Athenian Musical Discourse in the Late Fifth Century Music and the Muses. The Culture of “Mousikē” in the Classical Athenian City. 2004 Oxford 185 204

BarronJ.P. Bakchylides, Theseus, and a woolly cloak BICS 1980 27 1 8

BremerJ.M. DeganiE.BremerJ.M.HandleyE.W. Aristophanes on his own poetry Aristophane: Sept Exposés Suivis de Discussions 1993 Geneva 125 165

CairnsD.L. CairnsD.L.HowieJ.G. Bacchylides. Five Epinician Odes (3 5 9 11 13) Text Introductory Essays and Interpretative Commentary 2010 Cambridge

CalameC. KowalzigB.WilsonP. The Dithyramb, a Dionysiac Poetic Form: Genre Rules and Cultic Contexts Dithyramb in Context. 2013 Oxford 332 352

CampbellD.A. Greek lyric. IV. Bacchylides Corinna and others 1992 Cambridge MA

CareyC. SlingsS.R.PfeijfferI.L. Ethos and Pathos in Bacchylides One Hundred Years of Bacchylides: proceedings of a colloquium held at the Vrije Universeieit Amsterdam 1999 Amsterdam 17 29

CareyC. SlingsS.R.PfeijfferI.L. AthanassakiL.BowieE.L. Alcman: From Laconia to Alexandria Archaic and Classical Choral Song. 2011 Berlin 423 446

CeccarelliP. KowalzigB.WilsonP. Circular Choruses and the Dithyramb in the Classical and Hellenistic Period: A Problem of Definition Dithyramb in Context 2013 Oxford 153 170

CsapoE. MurrayP.WilsonP. The Politics of the New Music Music and the Muses. The Culture of “Mousikē” in the Classical Athenian City. 2004 Oxford 207 248

CsapoE. MurrayP.WilsonP. YatromanolakisD. The Economics, Poetics, Politics, Metaphysics, and Ethics of the “New Music” Music and Cultural Politics in Greek and Chinese Societies Vol. I: Antiquity 2011 Cambridge MA 65 131

CsapoE.WilsonP. BudelmannF. Timotheus the New Musician The Cambridge Companion to Greek Lyric 2009 Cambridge 277 293

D’AlessioG. KowalzigB.WilsonP. ‘The Name of the Dithyramb’: Diachronic and Diatopic Variations Dithyramb in Context 2013 Oxford 113 132

D’AngourA. GoldhillS.OsborneR. The New Music—so what’s new? Rethinking Revolutions through Ancient Greece 2006 Cambridge 264 283

D’AngourA. The Greeks and the New. Novelty in Ancient Greek Imagination and Experience 2011 Cambridge

D’AngourA. KowalzigB.WilsonP. Music and Movement in the Dithyramb Dithyramb in Context 2013 Oxford 198 209

DoverK.S. Aristophanes. Frogs 1997 Oxford

DunbarN. Aristophanes. Birds 1995 Oxford

FearnD. Bacchylides. Politics Performance Poetic Tradition 2007 Oxford

FearnD. AgócsP.CareyC.RawlesR. Bacchylidean Myths Reading the Victory Ode 2012 Cambridge 321 343

FearnD. KowalzigB.WilsonP. Athens and the Empire: The Contextual Flexibility of Dithyramb, and its Imperialist Ramifications Dithyramb in Context 2013 Oxford 133 152

FordA. The Origins of Criticism: Literary Culture and Poetic Theory in Classical Greece 2002 Princeton

FordA. KowalzigB.WilsonP. The Poetics of Dithyramb Dithyramb in Context 2013 Oxford 313 331

FowlerD. On the Shoulders of Giants: Intertextuality and Classical Studies md 1997 39 13 34

FranklinJ.C. KowalzigB.WilsonP. ‘Songbenders of Circular Choruses’: Dithyramb and the ‘Demise of Music’ Dithyramb in Context 2013 Oxford 213 236

Garcia RomeroF. BagordoA.ZimmermannB. The Dithyrambs of Bacchylides: Their Position in the Evolution of the Genre Bakchylides: 100 Jahre nach seiner Wiederentdeckung 2000 Munich 47 57

GentiliB.CatenacciC. Polinnia. Poesia Greca Arcaica 2007 Messina/Firenze

GerberD.E. The gifts of Aphrodite (Bacchylides 17.10) Phoenix 1965 19 212 213

HadjimichaelTh.A. CastaldoD.GiannachiF.ManieriA. Epinician Competitions: Persona and Voice in Bacchylides Poetry Music and Contests in Ancient Greece: Proceedings of the IV International Meeting of MOISA Lecce 28-30 October 2010 Rudiae. 2010-2011 I Galatina 331 356 Ricerche sul mondo classico 22-23

HadjimichaelTh.A. Sports-writing: Bacchylides’ Athletic Descriptions forthcoming (a) Mnemosyne

HadjimichaelTh.A. What’s in a name? Aristophanes and the Nine Lyric Poets forthcoming (b)

HindsS. Allusion and Intertext. Dynamics of Appropriation in Roman Poetry 1998 Cambridge

HoseM. Bakchylides, Carmen 17: Dithyrambos oder Paian? RhM 1995 138 299 314

IeranòG. Il ditirambo di Dioniso: le testimonianze antiche 1997 Pisa

JebbR.C.S. Bacchylides 1906 Cambridge

KäppelL. Paian. Studien zur Geschichte einer Gattung 1992 Berlin/New York

KäppelL. BagordoA.ZimmermannB. Bakchylides und das System der chorlyrischen Gattungen im 5. Jh. v.Chr. Bakchylides. 100 Jaher nach einer Wiederentdeckung 2000 Munich 11 27

KirkwoodG.M. WallachL. The Narrative Art of Bacchylides The Classical Tradition. Literary and Historical Studies in Honor of H. Caplan 1966 Ithaca 98 114

KowalzigB.WilsonP. KowalzigB.WilsonP. Introduction: The World of Dithyramb Dithyramb in Context 2013 Oxford 1 27

KugelmeierC. Reflexe früher und zeitgenössischer Lyrik in der alten attischen Komödie 1996 Stuttgart

LefkowitzM.R. Bacchylides’ Ode 5, imitation and originality hscp 1969 73 45 96

LeVenP.A. The Colors of Sound: Poikilia and its Aesthetic Contexts grms 2013a 1 229 242

LeVenP.A. KwapiszJ.PetrainD.SzymańskiM. “You make Less Sense than a (New) Dithyramb”: Sociology of a Riddling Style The Muse at Play. Riddles and Wordplay in Greek and Latin Poetry 2013b Berlin/Boston 44 64

LeVenP.A. The Many-Headed Muse. Tradition and Innovation in Late Classical Greek Lyric poetry forthcoming Cambridge

MaehlerH. Die Lieder des Bakchylides 1997 Leiden 2. Teil Die Dithyramben und Fragmente; Text Übersetzung und Kommentar

MaehlerH. Bacchylides. A Selection 2004 Cambridge

MartinR.P. HunterR.RutherfordI. Read on Arrival Wandering Poets in Ancient Greek Culture: Travel Locality and Panhellenism 2009 Cambridge 80 104

MerckelbachR. Der Theseus des Bakchylides (Gedicht für ein attisches Ephebenfest) zpe 1973 12 52 62

ParkerL.P.E. The Songs of Aristophanes 1997 Oxford

PavlouM. Bacchylides 17: Singing and Usurping the Paean grbs 2012 52 510 539

PeponiA.-E. KowalzigB.WilsonP. Dithyramb in Greek Thought: The Problem of Choral Mimesis Dithyramb in Context 2013 Oxford 353 367

PfeijfferI.L. The image of the eagle in Pindar and Bacchylides cp 1994 89 305 317

PieperG.W. Conflict of character in Bacchylides’ Ode 17 taphA 1972 103 395 404

PoppH. JensW. Das Amoibaion Die Bauformen der Griechischen Tragödie 1971 München 221 275

PowerT. The Culture of Kitharôidia 2010 Washington DC

PowerT. KowalzigB.WilsonP. Kyklios Kitharoidos: Dithyramb and Nomos in Play Dithyramb in Context 2013 Oxford 237 256

PöhlmannE. YatromanolakisD. Aristophanes and the “New Music” Music and Cultural Politics in Greek and Chinese Societies. Vol.I: Antiquity 2011 Cambridge MA 29 64

PrauscelloL. AgócsP.CareyC.RawlesR. Epinician sounds: Pindar and Musical Innovation Reading the Victory Ode 2012 Cambridge 58 82

RichterL. Die Neue Musik der griechischen Antike Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 1968 1 1 18 134 147

RosenR. DobrovG.W. Aristophanes Brill’s Companion to the Study of Greek Comedy 2010 Leiden and Boston 227 278

RutherfordI. RobertsD.DunnF.FowlerD. Odes and Ends: Closure in Greek lyric poetry Classical Closure: Reading the End in Greek and Latin Literature 1997 Princeton 43 61

RutherfordI. Pindar’s Paeans. A Reading of the Fragments with a Survey of the Genre 2001 Oxford

SegalC. Bacchylides reconsidered. Epithets and the dynamics of lyric narrative qucc 1976 22 99 130

SegalC. EasterlingP.E.KnoxB.M.W. Choral Lyric in the Fifth Century The Cambridge History of Classical Literature. Vol.I. Greek Literature 1985 Cambridge 222 245

SommersteinA. How to avoid being a Komodoumenos’ cq 1996 46 2 327 356

StonemanR. The ‘Theban Eagle’ cq 1976 26 2 188 197

SwiftL. The Hidden Chorus: Echoes of Genre in Tragic Lyric 2010 Oxford

WallaceR. An Early Fifth-Century Athenian Revolution in Aulos Music hscph 2003 101 73 92

WestM.L. Ancient Greek Music 1992 Oxford

WilsonP. MurrayP.WilsonP. Athenian Strings Music and the Muses: the Culture of Mousike in the Classical Athenian City 2004 Oxford 269 306

WrightM. The Comedian as Critic. Greek Old Comedy and Poetics 2012 London

ZimmermannB. Untersuchungen zur Form und dramatischen Technik der Aristophanischen Komödien. Bd. 1: Parodos und Amoibaion 1984 Königstein

ZimmermannB. Dithyrambos: Geschichte einer Gattung 1992 Göttingen

ZimmermannB. ZimmermannB.SlaterN.W. Comedy’s Criticism of Music Intertextualität in der griechisch-römischen Komödie 1993a Stuttgart 39 49

ZimmermannB. SommersteinA. Das Lied der Polis: Zur Geschichte des Dithyrambos Tragedy Comedy and the Polis. Papers from the Greek Drama Conference Nottingham 18-20 July 1990 1993b Bari 39 54

6

Zimmermann 1993a43-45. Csapo and Wilson (2009 282) note that “suddenly in the later fifth century musical innovation became an ‘issue’ for the Greeks” (my emphasis). Their claim is confirmed by a number of scholarly studies. E.g. with reference to the New Dithyramb Ford (2013 320-322) shows how Aristophanes criticizes Aeschylus for the excess in compound epithets for which he also parodied the New Dithyramb. Wallace (2003 75-82) has also shown that the aulos was also marked by revolutionary musical changes in early fifth century an era that was defined as traditional and always in comparison to the new character of music and poetry in the latter half of the fifth century.

17

Dunbar 1995665.

27

Barker 2004.

34

Ford 2013319-321quotation from 319.

35

Kirkwood 196698-101.

37

Gentili and Catenacci 2007341.

38

Segal 1976101107.

40

LeVen 2013ain an attempt to explore the sensual and aesthetic experience of mousikē examines poikilos and poikilia “as terms of aesthetic and self-conscious discourse on the nature of the sensory experience and its effects” (p.236). She notes in particular (p.240) that poikilia as a term referring to musical complexity becomes “one of the characteristics of the (much-discussed) virtuoso style of New Music.” Csapo (2004 227) explains how the New Music appealed “to senses especially to the ears and eye of the mind.” West (1992 363) characterises the language of Timotheus’ Persae as elaborate exuberant highly-coloured and with tendency to concentrate on pictorial details in his narrative.

41

Cf. Gentili and Catenacci 2007341on how Bacchylides differs from Pindar in that he often analyses his characters’ psychology; Csapo (2004 228) comments on how ethopoieia was one of the main quests of the New Music.

42

Cf. Kirkwood 1966; Fearn 2012.

43

Calame 2013341 entitles his section dealing with Bacchylides’ dithyramb “The mimetic narratives of Bacchylides.”

44

West 199244. Zimmermann (1992 118-128) and Csapo (2004 207-229) (2011 65-89) offer detailed accounts of the characteristics of the New Music; with reference to the character of the dithyrambic genre Zimmermann (1993b 51-54) gives a short overview of the changing process of the dithyramb between the fifth and second centuries; Ieranò (1997 37-48 and 205-232) gathers and analyses the relevant testimonia on the innovations introduced by the New Dithyramb; Wilson (2004 303-306) considers briefly the manner in which stringed instruments were affected by the New Music; Csapo and Wilson (2009 287-290) offer a concise overview of the musical characteristics of the New Music with special emphasis on Timotheus; D’Angour (2011 202-206) accompanies his overview of the main technical and performative features of the New Music with allusions to a few reactionary tendencies. See also Richter 1968; West 1992 356-372; D’Angour 2006; Fearn 2007 181-205; Power 2010 82-86 110-115 and 500-516; Kowalzig and Wilson 2013 19-23; Franklin 2013; Power 2013.

49

D’Angour 2013206.

51

Csapo 2004214 and 2011 74.

54

See Peponi 2013362-364; Franklin 2013 232 for two interpretations of the passage in connection with the dithyramb.

57

D’Alessio 2013119-122 discusses the genre of Bacchylides’ Kassandra in connection to kuklioi khoroi. Cf. B.fr.60 which closes with the semi-paeanic refrain iē iē. Despite this closure the poem could plausibly be classified as a dithyramb because it is followed on the papyrus by fr.61 which like the rest of Bacchylides’ dithyrambs is given a title.

59

Cf. Zimmermann 1992116 and 1993b 54.

64

Rosen 2010242. It is clear that Aristophanes was looking for radical features in every aspect of life: the gluttons the extremely wealthy the leading politicians who were notorious scandalous or more powerful and more successful than average on which Sommerstein 1996.

65

Rosen 2010242.

67

E.g. Jebb 190663; Kirkwood 1966 100; Carey 1999 20-1; Fearn 2007 20-1; Cairns 2010 45-57 with reference to the quasi-epic narrative style of his myths; on the Homeric quality of Bacchylides’ persona Hadjimichael 2010-2011.

68

See Fearn 2007120-143.

69

Prauscello (2012) has recently argued convincingly in favour of the transitional phase that Pindar’s epinician belonged to; she documents how his poetry proves that he cannot be perceived as the musically conservative figure presented in our sources. Her conclusion does not alter the conclusions drawn above on Bacchylides; rather it confirms the possibility of the co-existence of the traditional and the innovative in poets that have always been perceived as classic.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 14 14 6
Full Text Views 84 84 61
PDF Downloads 5 5 3
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0